Abstract

The phenomenon of enhanced backscattering (also known as coherent backscattering), an object of substantial scientific interest, has awaited application to tissue optics for the past two decades. Here we demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, depth-resolved spectroscopic elastic light scattering measurements in tissue by use of low-coherence enhanced backscattering (LEBS). We achieve the depth resolution by exploiting the nature of the LEBS peak that contains information about a wide range of tissue depths. We further demonstrate that depth-resolved LEBS spectroscopy has the potential to identify the origin of precancerous transformations in the colon at an early, previously undetectable stage.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2004 (3)

R. Sapienza, S. Mujumdar, C. Cheung, A. G. Yodh, and D. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 033903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromin, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, Gastroenterology 126, 1071 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, V. M. Turzhitsky, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, and V. Backman, Opt. Lett. 29, 1906 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. Kobaek-Larsen, I. Thorup, A. Diederichsen, C. Fenger, and M. R. Hoitinga, Comp. Med. East West 50, 16 (2000).

1994 (1)

M. Dogariu and T. Asakura, Waves Random Media 4, 429 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1988 (1)

R. Vreeker, M. P. van Albada, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Lett. A 132, 51 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

S. Etemad, R. Thompson, and M. J. Andrejco, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1420 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, and R. Maynard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1471 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akkermans, E.

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, and R. Maynard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1471 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

Andrejco, M. J.

S. Etemad, R. Thompson, and M. J. Andrejco, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1420 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asakura, T.

M. Dogariu and T. Asakura, Waves Random Media 4, 429 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Backman, V.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, V. M. Turzhitsky, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, and V. Backman, Opt. Lett. 29, 1906 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromin, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, Gastroenterology 126, 1071 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, C.

R. Sapienza, S. Mujumdar, C. Cheung, A. G. Yodh, and D. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 033903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Diederichsen, A.

M. Kobaek-Larsen, I. Thorup, A. Diederichsen, C. Fenger, and M. R. Hoitinga, Comp. Med. East West 50, 16 (2000).

Dogariu, M.

M. Dogariu and T. Asakura, Waves Random Media 4, 429 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Etemad, S.

S. Etemad, R. Thompson, and M. J. Andrejco, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1420 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fenger, C.

M. Kobaek-Larsen, I. Thorup, A. Diederichsen, C. Fenger, and M. R. Hoitinga, Comp. Med. East West 50, 16 (2000).

Goldberg, M. J.

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromin, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, Gastroenterology 126, 1071 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hoitinga, M. R.

M. Kobaek-Larsen, I. Thorup, A. Diederichsen, C. Fenger, and M. R. Hoitinga, Comp. Med. East West 50, 16 (2000).

Kim, Y. L.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, V. M. Turzhitsky, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, and V. Backman, Opt. Lett. 29, 1906 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromin, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, Gastroenterology 126, 1071 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kobaek-Larsen, M.

M. Kobaek-Larsen, I. Thorup, A. Diederichsen, C. Fenger, and M. R. Hoitinga, Comp. Med. East West 50, 16 (2000).

Kromin, A. K.

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromin, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, Gastroenterology 126, 1071 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lagendijk, A.

R. Vreeker, M. P. van Albada, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Lett. A 132, 51 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromin, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, Gastroenterology 126, 1071 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, V. M. Turzhitsky, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, and V. Backman, Opt. Lett. 29, 1906 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maynard, R.

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, and R. Maynard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1471 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mujumdar, S.

R. Sapienza, S. Mujumdar, C. Cheung, A. G. Yodh, and D. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 033903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roy, H. K.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, V. M. Turzhitsky, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, and V. Backman, Opt. Lett. 29, 1906 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromin, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, Gastroenterology 126, 1071 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sapienza, R.

R. Sapienza, S. Mujumdar, C. Cheung, A. G. Yodh, and D. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 033903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sprik, R.

R. Vreeker, M. P. van Albada, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Lett. A 132, 51 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tang, G. C.

Thompson, R.

S. Etemad, R. Thompson, and M. J. Andrejco, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1420 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thorup, I.

M. Kobaek-Larsen, I. Thorup, A. Diederichsen, C. Fenger, and M. R. Hoitinga, Comp. Med. East West 50, 16 (2000).

Turzhitsky, V. M.

van Albada, M. P.

R. Vreeker, M. P. van Albada, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Lett. A 132, 51 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Vreeker, R.

R. Vreeker, M. P. van Albada, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Lett. A 132, 51 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wali, R. K.

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, V. M. Turzhitsky, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, and V. Backman, Opt. Lett. 29, 1906 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromin, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, Gastroenterology 126, 1071 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D.

R. Sapienza, S. Mujumdar, C. Cheung, A. G. Yodh, and D. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 033903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, P. E.

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, and R. Maynard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1471 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

R. Sapienza, S. Mujumdar, C. Cheung, A. G. Yodh, and D. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 033903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, K. M.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Comp. Med. East West (1)

M. Kobaek-Larsen, I. Thorup, A. Diederichsen, C. Fenger, and M. R. Hoitinga, Comp. Med. East West 50, 16 (2000).

Gastroenterology (1)

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromin, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, Gastroenterology 126, 1071 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

R. Vreeker, M. P. van Albada, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, Phys. Lett. A 132, 51 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

S. Etemad, R. Thompson, and M. J. Andrejco, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1420 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sapienza, S. Mujumdar, C. Cheung, A. G. Yodh, and D. Wiersma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 033903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, and R. Maynard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1471 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waves Random Media (1)

M. Dogariu and T. Asakura, Waves Random Media 4, 429 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) EBS intensity I EBS ( θ , λ ) obtained from ex vivo rat colon tissue with the LEBS spectroscopy instrument. (b) Radial intensity distribution P ( r , λ ) obtained from the inverse Fourier transform of I EBS ( θ , λ ) .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) EBS intensity I EBS ( θ ) recorded from a typical tissue model ( l s = 52 μ m and l s * = 195 μ m ) for T = 35 124 μ m . (b) I EBS ( θ = 0 ° ) as a function of T. Penetration depth L p ( θ = 0 ° ) is defined as T for which I EBS ( θ = 0 ° ) reaches 90% of its saturated value. (c) Radial intensity distribution P ( r ) obtained for T = 35 124 μ m . (d) P ( r = 0 ) as a function of T.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Penetration depth L p ( θ ) as a function of θ. (b) L p ( r ) as a function of r. L p ( θ ) decreases with θ. L p ( r ) increases with r.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral slopes obtained from precancerous colonic tissues at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after the initiation of colon carcinogenesis compared with the negative control saline-treated rates: (a) lower compartment ( L p 70 μ m ) and (b) upper compartment ( L p 40 μ m ) of the crypts.

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