Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a photonic phase shifter based a on vector-sum technique that uses polarization-maintaining fibers (PMFs). We achieved a continuous and full phase shift up to 2π at 30.48GHz by controlling the polarization state of the light injected into two pieces of PMF of different lengths and applying two different modulator bias voltages.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Dreher, N. Niklasch, F. Klefenz, and A. Schroth, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 51, 1815 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. F. Coward, T. K. Yee, C. H. Chalfant, and P. H. Chang, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2201 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. R. Jez, K. J. Cearns, and P. E. Jessop, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 15, 46 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. S. Lee, A. H. Udupa, H. Erling, H. Zhang, Y. Chang, C. Zhang, D. H. Chang, D. Bhattacharya, B. Tsap, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, IEEE Microw. Guid. Wave Lett. 9, 57 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. H. Han, H. Erling, D. Chang, M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, W. Steier, and H. F. Fetterman, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 531 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Yilmaz, G.-A. Chakam, A. Breuel, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, and W. Freude, presented at the International Microwave Photonics Topical Meeting, Budapest, Hungary, September 10–12, 2003.
  7. J. Company, D. Pastor, A. Martinez, B. Ortega, and S. Sales, Opt. Lett. 28, 1415 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 35, 2133 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. J. X. Chen, Y. Wu, J. Hodiak, and P. K. L. Yu, presented at the International Microwave Photonics Topical Meeting, Budapest, Hungary, September 10–12, 2003.
  10. K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, and S. Kawanishi, Opt. Express 9, 676 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

A. Dreher, N. Niklasch, F. Klefenz, and A. Schroth, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 51, 1815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Company, D. Pastor, A. Martinez, B. Ortega, and S. Sales, Opt. Lett. 28, 1415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. H. Han, H. Erling, D. Chang, M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, W. Steier, and H. F. Fetterman, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 531 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1999 (2)

W. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 35, 2133 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Lee, A. H. Udupa, H. Erling, H. Zhang, Y. Chang, C. Zhang, D. H. Chang, D. Bhattacharya, B. Tsap, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, IEEE Microw. Guid. Wave Lett. 9, 57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. R. Jez, K. J. Cearns, and P. E. Jessop, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 15, 46 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. F. Coward, T. K. Yee, C. H. Chalfant, and P. H. Chang, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

W. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 35, 2133 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Berroth, M.

H. Yilmaz, G.-A. Chakam, A. Breuel, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, and W. Freude, presented at the International Microwave Photonics Topical Meeting, Budapest, Hungary, September 10–12, 2003.

Bhattacharya, D.

S. S. Lee, A. H. Udupa, H. Erling, H. Zhang, Y. Chang, C. Zhang, D. H. Chang, D. Bhattacharya, B. Tsap, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, IEEE Microw. Guid. Wave Lett. 9, 57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Breuel, A.

H. Yilmaz, G.-A. Chakam, A. Breuel, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, and W. Freude, presented at the International Microwave Photonics Topical Meeting, Budapest, Hungary, September 10–12, 2003.

Cearns, K. J.

D. R. Jez, K. J. Cearns, and P. E. Jessop, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 15, 46 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chakam, G.-A.

H. Yilmaz, G.-A. Chakam, A. Breuel, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, and W. Freude, presented at the International Microwave Photonics Topical Meeting, Budapest, Hungary, September 10–12, 2003.

Chalfant, C. H.

J. F. Coward, T. K. Yee, C. H. Chalfant, and P. H. Chang, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chang, D.

J. H. Han, H. Erling, D. Chang, M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, W. Steier, and H. F. Fetterman, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 531 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chang, D. H.

S. S. Lee, A. H. Udupa, H. Erling, H. Zhang, Y. Chang, C. Zhang, D. H. Chang, D. Bhattacharya, B. Tsap, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, IEEE Microw. Guid. Wave Lett. 9, 57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chang, P. H.

J. F. Coward, T. K. Yee, C. H. Chalfant, and P. H. Chang, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.

S. S. Lee, A. H. Udupa, H. Erling, H. Zhang, Y. Chang, C. Zhang, D. H. Chang, D. Bhattacharya, B. Tsap, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, IEEE Microw. Guid. Wave Lett. 9, 57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A. J. X.

A. J. X. Chen, Y. Wu, J. Hodiak, and P. K. L. Yu, presented at the International Microwave Photonics Topical Meeting, Budapest, Hungary, September 10–12, 2003.

Company, J.

Coward, J. F.

J. F. Coward, T. K. Yee, C. H. Chalfant, and P. H. Chang, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

S. S. Lee, A. H. Udupa, H. Erling, H. Zhang, Y. Chang, C. Zhang, D. H. Chang, D. Bhattacharya, B. Tsap, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, IEEE Microw. Guid. Wave Lett. 9, 57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dreher, A.

A. Dreher, N. Niklasch, F. Klefenz, and A. Schroth, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 51, 1815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Erling, H.

J. H. Han, H. Erling, D. Chang, M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, W. Steier, and H. F. Fetterman, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 531 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Lee, A. H. Udupa, H. Erling, H. Zhang, Y. Chang, C. Zhang, D. H. Chang, D. Bhattacharya, B. Tsap, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, IEEE Microw. Guid. Wave Lett. 9, 57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fetterman, H. F.

J. H. Han, H. Erling, D. Chang, M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, W. Steier, and H. F. Fetterman, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 531 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fetterman, H. R.

S. S. Lee, A. H. Udupa, H. Erling, H. Zhang, Y. Chang, C. Zhang, D. H. Chang, D. Bhattacharya, B. Tsap, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, IEEE Microw. Guid. Wave Lett. 9, 57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Freude, W.

H. Yilmaz, G.-A. Chakam, A. Breuel, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, and W. Freude, presented at the International Microwave Photonics Topical Meeting, Budapest, Hungary, September 10–12, 2003.

Han, J. H.

J. H. Han, H. Erling, D. Chang, M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, W. Steier, and H. F. Fetterman, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 531 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hodiak, J.

A. J. X. Chen, Y. Wu, J. Hodiak, and P. K. L. Yu, presented at the International Microwave Photonics Topical Meeting, Budapest, Hungary, September 10–12, 2003.

Jessop, P. E.

D. R. Jez, K. J. Cearns, and P. E. Jessop, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 15, 46 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jez, D. R.

D. R. Jez, K. J. Cearns, and P. E. Jessop, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 15, 46 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kawanishi, S.

Klefenz, F.

A. Dreher, N. Niklasch, F. Klefenz, and A. Schroth, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 51, 1815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, H.

Lee, S. S.

S. S. Lee, A. H. Udupa, H. Erling, H. Zhang, Y. Chang, C. Zhang, D. H. Chang, D. Bhattacharya, B. Tsap, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, IEEE Microw. Guid. Wave Lett. 9, 57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, A.

Niklasch, N.

A. Dreher, N. Niklasch, F. Klefenz, and A. Schroth, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 51, 1815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oh, M.-C.

J. H. Han, H. Erling, D. Chang, M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, W. Steier, and H. F. Fetterman, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 531 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ortega, B.

Pastor, D.

Sales, S.

Schroth, A.

A. Dreher, N. Niklasch, F. Klefenz, and A. Schroth, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 51, 1815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W.

J. H. Han, H. Erling, D. Chang, M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, W. Steier, and H. F. Fetterman, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 531 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

S. S. Lee, A. H. Udupa, H. Erling, H. Zhang, Y. Chang, C. Zhang, D. H. Chang, D. Bhattacharya, B. Tsap, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, IEEE Microw. Guid. Wave Lett. 9, 57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

Tsap, B.

S. S. Lee, A. H. Udupa, H. Erling, H. Zhang, Y. Chang, C. Zhang, D. H. Chang, D. Bhattacharya, B. Tsap, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, IEEE Microw. Guid. Wave Lett. 9, 57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Udupa, A. H.

S. S. Lee, A. H. Udupa, H. Erling, H. Zhang, Y. Chang, C. Zhang, D. H. Chang, D. Bhattacharya, B. Tsap, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, IEEE Microw. Guid. Wave Lett. 9, 57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, W.

H. Yilmaz, G.-A. Chakam, A. Breuel, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, and W. Freude, presented at the International Microwave Photonics Topical Meeting, Budapest, Hungary, September 10–12, 2003.

Williams, J. A. R.

W. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 35, 2133 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

A. J. X. Chen, Y. Wu, J. Hodiak, and P. K. L. Yu, presented at the International Microwave Photonics Topical Meeting, Budapest, Hungary, September 10–12, 2003.

Yee, T. K.

J. F. Coward, T. K. Yee, C. H. Chalfant, and P. H. Chang, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yilmaz, H.

H. Yilmaz, G.-A. Chakam, A. Breuel, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, and W. Freude, presented at the International Microwave Photonics Topical Meeting, Budapest, Hungary, September 10–12, 2003.

Yu, P. K. L.

A. J. X. Chen, Y. Wu, J. Hodiak, and P. K. L. Yu, presented at the International Microwave Photonics Topical Meeting, Budapest, Hungary, September 10–12, 2003.

Zhang, C.

J. H. Han, H. Erling, D. Chang, M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, W. Steier, and H. F. Fetterman, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 531 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Lee, A. H. Udupa, H. Erling, H. Zhang, Y. Chang, C. Zhang, D. H. Chang, D. Bhattacharya, B. Tsap, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, IEEE Microw. Guid. Wave Lett. 9, 57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

J. H. Han, H. Erling, D. Chang, M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, W. Steier, and H. F. Fetterman, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 531 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Lee, A. H. Udupa, H. Erling, H. Zhang, Y. Chang, C. Zhang, D. H. Chang, D. Bhattacharya, B. Tsap, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, IEEE Microw. Guid. Wave Lett. 9, 57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 35, 2133 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

W. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 35, 2133 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Microw. Guid. Wave Lett. (1)

S. S. Lee, A. H. Udupa, H. Erling, H. Zhang, Y. Chang, C. Zhang, D. H. Chang, D. Bhattacharya, B. Tsap, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, and H. R. Fetterman, IEEE Microw. Guid. Wave Lett. 9, 57 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

J. H. Han, H. Erling, D. Chang, M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, W. Steier, and H. F. Fetterman, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 531 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

A. Dreher, N. Niklasch, F. Klefenz, and A. Schroth, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 51, 1815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. F. Coward, T. K. Yee, C. H. Chalfant, and P. H. Chang, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 2201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. R. Jez, K. J. Cearns, and P. E. Jessop, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 15, 46 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

A. J. X. Chen, Y. Wu, J. Hodiak, and P. K. L. Yu, presented at the International Microwave Photonics Topical Meeting, Budapest, Hungary, September 10–12, 2003.

H. Yilmaz, G.-A. Chakam, A. Breuel, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, and W. Freude, presented at the International Microwave Photonics Topical Meeting, Budapest, Hungary, September 10–12, 2003.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configuration and measurement setup for our photonic phase shifter: PC, polarization controller; OS, optical switch; OPC, optical power combiner; NA, network analyzer; LD, laser diode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured relative phase for (a) PMF 1 ( 11.7 m ) and (b) PMF 2 ( 35.1 m ) at a frequency of 30.48 GHz .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured and calculated variation in power as a function of phase change in PMF 1 with a modulator bias condition of 3.9 V .

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A 1 sin ( ω t ) + A 2 sin ( ω t + Δ φ ) = A sin ( ω t + φ ) ,
A = [ A 1 2 + A 2 2 + 2 A 1 A 2 cos ( Δ φ ) ] 1 2 ,
φ = tan 1 [ sin ( Δ φ ) A 1 A 2 + cos ( Δ φ ) ] .
I 2 ( 1 cos { π V π [ V m sin ( ω t ) + V ] } ) ,
I C J 1 ( π V m V π ) I sin ( π V V π ) [ cos 2 ( θ ) sin ( ω t ) + sin 2 ( θ ) sin ( ω t + ω τ ) ] = A sin ( ω t + φ ) ,
A = J 1 ( π V m V π ) I sin ( π V V π ) { 1 + 1 2 sin 2 2 θ [ cos ( ω τ ) 1 ] } 1 2 ,
φ = tan 1 [ sin 2 θ sin ( ω τ ) cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ cos ( ω τ ) ] .
I C J 1 ( π V m V π ) I sin ( π V V π ) [ cos 2 ( θ ) sin ( ω t + δ ) + sin 2 ( θ ) sin ( ω t + ω τ + δ ) ] = A sin ( ω t + δ + φ ) ,

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