Abstract

We describe a method to observe dim exoplanets that eliminates light from the parent star across the entire exit pupil without sacrificing light from the planet by use of a vortex mask of topological charge m=2.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. A.C. Perryman, Rep. Prog. Phys. 63, 1209 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Roddier and C. Roddier, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 109, 815 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. O. Guyon, C. Roddier, J. Elon Graves, F. Roddier, S. Cuevas, C. Espejo, S. Gonzalez, A. Martinez, G. Bisiacchi, and V. Vuntesmeri, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 1321 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clenet, and A Labeyrie, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. B. Lyot, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 99, 580 (1939).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Vilas and B. A. Smith, Appl. Opt. 26, 664 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. L. Codona, in Proc. SPIE 5169, 228 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotlyar, M. V. Shinkaryev, V. A. Soifer, and G. V. Uspleniev, J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1147 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. A. Swartzlander, Opt. Lett. 26, 497 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. A. Davis, D. E. McNamara, and D. M. Cottrell, Opt. Lett. 25, 99 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. G. Larkin, D. J. Bone, and M. A. Oldfield, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1862 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Vasnetsov and K. Staliunas, eds., Optical Vortices, Vol. 228 of Horizons in World Physics (Nova Science, 1999).
  13. Z. S. Sacks, D. Rozas, and G. S. Swartzlander, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2226 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. B. de Colstoun, G. Khitrova, A. V. Federov, T. R. Nelson, C. Lowry, T. M. Brennan, B. G. Hammons, and P. D. Maker, Chaos, Solitons Fractals 4, 1575 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. V. V. Kotlyar, A. A. Almazov, S. N. Khonina, V. A. Soifer, H. Elfstrom, and J. Turunen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 849 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Sung, H. Hockel, and E. G. Johnson, Opt. Lett. 30, 150 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. E. G. Johnson, J. W. Sung, H. Hockel, and J. D. Brown, “(Domo) Development of 2D phase grating mask using e-beam direct writing for fabrication of analog resist profile,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
  18. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1996), p. 35.
  19. M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions, 9th ed. (Dover, 1970), p. 487.
  20. G. A. Swartzlander, Opt. Lett. 30, 2876 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

2003 (1)

J. L. Codona, in Proc. SPIE 5169, 228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

2000 (2)

M. A.C. Perryman, Rep. Prog. Phys. 63, 1209 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clenet, and A Labeyrie, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

O. Guyon, C. Roddier, J. Elon Graves, F. Roddier, S. Cuevas, C. Espejo, S. Gonzalez, A. Martinez, G. Bisiacchi, and V. Vuntesmeri, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 1321 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

F. Roddier and C. Roddier, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 109, 815 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

F. B. de Colstoun, G. Khitrova, A. V. Federov, T. R. Nelson, C. Lowry, T. M. Brennan, B. G. Hammons, and P. D. Maker, Chaos, Solitons Fractals 4, 1575 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotlyar, M. V. Shinkaryev, V. A. Soifer, and G. V. Uspleniev, J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1147 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1939 (1)

M. B. Lyot, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 99, 580 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Abramowitz, M.

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions, 9th ed. (Dover, 1970), p. 487.

Almazov, A. A.

Bisiacchi, G.

O. Guyon, C. Roddier, J. Elon Graves, F. Roddier, S. Cuevas, C. Espejo, S. Gonzalez, A. Martinez, G. Bisiacchi, and V. Vuntesmeri, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 1321 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boccaletti, A.

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clenet, and A Labeyrie, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bone, D. J.

Brennan, T. M.

F. B. de Colstoun, G. Khitrova, A. V. Federov, T. R. Nelson, C. Lowry, T. M. Brennan, B. G. Hammons, and P. D. Maker, Chaos, Solitons Fractals 4, 1575 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. D.

E. G. Johnson, J. W. Sung, H. Hockel, and J. D. Brown, “(Domo) Development of 2D phase grating mask using e-beam direct writing for fabrication of analog resist profile,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Clenet, Y.

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clenet, and A Labeyrie, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Codona, J. L.

J. L. Codona, in Proc. SPIE 5169, 228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cottrell, D. M.

Cuevas, S.

O. Guyon, C. Roddier, J. Elon Graves, F. Roddier, S. Cuevas, C. Espejo, S. Gonzalez, A. Martinez, G. Bisiacchi, and V. Vuntesmeri, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 1321 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. A.

de Colstoun, F. B.

F. B. de Colstoun, G. Khitrova, A. V. Federov, T. R. Nelson, C. Lowry, T. M. Brennan, B. G. Hammons, and P. D. Maker, Chaos, Solitons Fractals 4, 1575 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Elfstrom, H.

Espejo, C.

O. Guyon, C. Roddier, J. Elon Graves, F. Roddier, S. Cuevas, C. Espejo, S. Gonzalez, A. Martinez, G. Bisiacchi, and V. Vuntesmeri, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 1321 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Federov, A. V.

F. B. de Colstoun, G. Khitrova, A. V. Federov, T. R. Nelson, C. Lowry, T. M. Brennan, B. G. Hammons, and P. D. Maker, Chaos, Solitons Fractals 4, 1575 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, S.

O. Guyon, C. Roddier, J. Elon Graves, F. Roddier, S. Cuevas, C. Espejo, S. Gonzalez, A. Martinez, G. Bisiacchi, and V. Vuntesmeri, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 1321 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1996), p. 35.

Graves, J. Elon

O. Guyon, C. Roddier, J. Elon Graves, F. Roddier, S. Cuevas, C. Espejo, S. Gonzalez, A. Martinez, G. Bisiacchi, and V. Vuntesmeri, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 1321 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guyon, O.

O. Guyon, C. Roddier, J. Elon Graves, F. Roddier, S. Cuevas, C. Espejo, S. Gonzalez, A. Martinez, G. Bisiacchi, and V. Vuntesmeri, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 1321 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hammons, B. G.

F. B. de Colstoun, G. Khitrova, A. V. Federov, T. R. Nelson, C. Lowry, T. M. Brennan, B. G. Hammons, and P. D. Maker, Chaos, Solitons Fractals 4, 1575 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hockel, H.

J. Sung, H. Hockel, and E. G. Johnson, Opt. Lett. 30, 150 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. G. Johnson, J. W. Sung, H. Hockel, and J. D. Brown, “(Domo) Development of 2D phase grating mask using e-beam direct writing for fabrication of analog resist profile,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Johnson, E. G.

J. Sung, H. Hockel, and E. G. Johnson, Opt. Lett. 30, 150 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. G. Johnson, J. W. Sung, H. Hockel, and J. D. Brown, “(Domo) Development of 2D phase grating mask using e-beam direct writing for fabrication of analog resist profile,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Khitrova, G.

F. B. de Colstoun, G. Khitrova, A. V. Federov, T. R. Nelson, C. Lowry, T. M. Brennan, B. G. Hammons, and P. D. Maker, Chaos, Solitons Fractals 4, 1575 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Khonina, S. N.

V. V. Kotlyar, A. A. Almazov, S. N. Khonina, V. A. Soifer, H. Elfstrom, and J. Turunen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotlyar, M. V. Shinkaryev, V. A. Soifer, and G. V. Uspleniev, J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1147 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kotlyar, V. V.

V. V. Kotlyar, A. A. Almazov, S. N. Khonina, V. A. Soifer, H. Elfstrom, and J. Turunen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotlyar, M. V. Shinkaryev, V. A. Soifer, and G. V. Uspleniev, J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1147 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Labeyrie, A

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clenet, and A Labeyrie, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Larkin, K. G.

Lowry, C.

F. B. de Colstoun, G. Khitrova, A. V. Federov, T. R. Nelson, C. Lowry, T. M. Brennan, B. G. Hammons, and P. D. Maker, Chaos, Solitons Fractals 4, 1575 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lyot, M. B.

M. B. Lyot, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 99, 580 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Maker, P. D.

F. B. de Colstoun, G. Khitrova, A. V. Federov, T. R. Nelson, C. Lowry, T. M. Brennan, B. G. Hammons, and P. D. Maker, Chaos, Solitons Fractals 4, 1575 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, A.

O. Guyon, C. Roddier, J. Elon Graves, F. Roddier, S. Cuevas, C. Espejo, S. Gonzalez, A. Martinez, G. Bisiacchi, and V. Vuntesmeri, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 1321 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McNamara, D. E.

Nelson, T. R.

F. B. de Colstoun, G. Khitrova, A. V. Federov, T. R. Nelson, C. Lowry, T. M. Brennan, B. G. Hammons, and P. D. Maker, Chaos, Solitons Fractals 4, 1575 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Oldfield, M. A.

Perryman, M. A.C.

M. A.C. Perryman, Rep. Prog. Phys. 63, 1209 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Riaud, P.

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clenet, and A Labeyrie, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, C.

O. Guyon, C. Roddier, J. Elon Graves, F. Roddier, S. Cuevas, C. Espejo, S. Gonzalez, A. Martinez, G. Bisiacchi, and V. Vuntesmeri, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 1321 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Roddier and C. Roddier, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 109, 815 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, F.

O. Guyon, C. Roddier, J. Elon Graves, F. Roddier, S. Cuevas, C. Espejo, S. Gonzalez, A. Martinez, G. Bisiacchi, and V. Vuntesmeri, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 1321 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Roddier and C. Roddier, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 109, 815 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rouan, D.

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clenet, and A Labeyrie, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rozas, D.

Sacks, Z. S.

Shinkaryev, M. V.

S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotlyar, M. V. Shinkaryev, V. A. Soifer, and G. V. Uspleniev, J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1147 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smith, B. A.

Soifer, V. A.

V. V. Kotlyar, A. A. Almazov, S. N. Khonina, V. A. Soifer, H. Elfstrom, and J. Turunen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotlyar, M. V. Shinkaryev, V. A. Soifer, and G. V. Uspleniev, J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1147 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stegun, I. A.

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions, 9th ed. (Dover, 1970), p. 487.

Sung, J.

Sung, J. W.

E. G. Johnson, J. W. Sung, H. Hockel, and J. D. Brown, “(Domo) Development of 2D phase grating mask using e-beam direct writing for fabrication of analog resist profile,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Swartzlander, G. A.

Swartzlander, G. S.

Turunen, J.

Uspleniev, G. V.

S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotlyar, M. V. Shinkaryev, V. A. Soifer, and G. V. Uspleniev, J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1147 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vilas, F.

Vuntesmeri, V.

O. Guyon, C. Roddier, J. Elon Graves, F. Roddier, S. Cuevas, C. Espejo, S. Gonzalez, A. Martinez, G. Bisiacchi, and V. Vuntesmeri, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 1321 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chaos, Solitons Fractals (1)

F. B. de Colstoun, G. Khitrova, A. V. Federov, T. R. Nelson, C. Lowry, T. M. Brennan, B. G. Hammons, and P. D. Maker, Chaos, Solitons Fractals 4, 1575 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotlyar, M. V. Shinkaryev, V. A. Soifer, and G. V. Uspleniev, J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1147 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

M. B. Lyot, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 99, 580 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. L. Codona, in Proc. SPIE 5169, 228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (3)

F. Roddier and C. Roddier, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 109, 815 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. Guyon, C. Roddier, J. Elon Graves, F. Roddier, S. Cuevas, C. Espejo, S. Gonzalez, A. Martinez, G. Bisiacchi, and V. Vuntesmeri, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 111, 1321 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clenet, and A Labeyrie, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

M. A.C. Perryman, Rep. Prog. Phys. 63, 1209 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

M. Vasnetsov and K. Staliunas, eds., Optical Vortices, Vol. 228 of Horizons in World Physics (Nova Science, 1999).

E. G. Johnson, J. W. Sung, H. Hockel, and J. D. Brown, “(Domo) Development of 2D phase grating mask using e-beam direct writing for fabrication of analog resist profile,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1996), p. 35.

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions, 9th ed. (Dover, 1970), p. 487.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a coronagraph composed of lenses L 1 , L 2 , and L 3 of focal lengths f. The pupil planes PP and focal planes FP are shown with their respective coordinates. Spatial filtering by the mask in FP1 extinguishes light from the on-axis source ( O 1 ) but transmits light from the off-axis source ( O 2 ) . Residual on-axis intensity appears near the perimeter of PP2, where it is truncated with a Lyot stop.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Intensity profile, U ( x , y ) 2 of a beam containing an optical vortex. (b) Surface profile of a VPM.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparisons for α 2 = α diff and A 1 2 A 2 2 = 100 . (a) Lyot coronagraph where R OM = r diff . (b), (c), (d) Vortex coronagraphs where m = 1 , m = 2 , m = 3 , respectively. In (c) the starlight is essentially eliminated, revealing a high-contrast image of the planet when m = 2 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Vortex coronagraph images for the case m = 2 and α = 2.2 λ R EP . (a) A 1 2 A 2 2 = 10 6 , R Lyot R EP = 0.8 . (b) A 1 2 A 2 2 = 10 8 , R Lyot R EP = 0.6 . Field amplitude plots are shown to aid the eye.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A, Vortex and B, Lyot coronagraph performance curves for α = 2.2 λ R EP where η represents the relative transmitted power. C, Ideal performance. D, Total relative transmitted power without filtering.

Equations (6)

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E ( r , θ , z ) = g ( r , z ) exp ( im θ ) exp ( i k z ) ,
U j ( u , v ) = t ( ρ , θ ) ( i λ f ) 1 exp ( i k ρ 2 2 f ) PP 1 P ( x , y ) U j ( x , y ) exp [ i ( x u + y v ) k f ] d x d y ,
U j ( u , v ) = ( i λ f ) 1 FP 1 U j ( u , v ) exp [ i ( u u + v v ) k f ] d u d v .
U j ( u , v ) = ( i λ f ) 1 PP 2 U j ( u , v ) P Lyot ( u , v ) exp [ i ( u u + v v ) k f ] d u d v .
U 1 ( u , v ) = { A 1 R EP 2 ρ 2 , ρ > R EP 0 , ρ < R EP } .
η = ( S 1 + S 2 ) S 2 ,

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