Abstract

A highly sensitive photodetection system with a detection limit of 1 photon/s was developed. This system uses a commercially available 200µm-diameter silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) and an in-house-developed ultralow-noise readout circuit, which are both cooled to 77 K. When the APD operates at a low gain of 10, it has a high-linearity response to the number of incident photons and a low excess noise factor. The APD also has a high quantum efficiency and a dark current of less than 1 e/s at 77 K. This photodetection system will shorten measurement time and permit higher spatial and wavelength resolution for near-field scanning optical microscopes.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. J. Fox, N. Woodard, and G. P. Lafyatis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1951 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. G. Woodard, E. G. Hufstedler, and G. P. Lafyatis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1177 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Dorkhov, A. Glauser, Y. Musienko, C. Regenfus, S. Reucroft, and J. Swain, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 58 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Yang, S. N. Dzhosyuk, J. M. Gabrielse, P. R. Huffman, C. E. H. Mattoni, S. E. Maxwell, D. N. McKinsey, and J. M. Doyle, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 508, 388 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. J. McIntyre, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-19, 703 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Moszynski, W. Czarnacki, M. Szawlowski, B. L. Zhou, M. Kapusta, D. Wolski, and P. Schotanus, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49, 971 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. N. Solovov, F. Neves, V. Chepel, M. I. Lopes, R. F. Marques, and A. J. P. L. Policarpo, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 53 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Waks, K. Inoue, W. D. Oliver, E. Diamanti, and Y. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1502 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 902 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Takeuchi, J. Kim, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1063 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Akiba and M. Fujiwara, Opt. Lett. 28, 1010 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. M. Hayat, Z. Chen, and M. A. Karim, IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 20, 344 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. J. McIntyre, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 46, 1623 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Yuan, K. A. Ansselm, C. Nie, C. Lenox, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, J. C. Campbell, and R. J. McIntyre, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 46, 1632 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (5)

A. Dorkhov, A. Glauser, Y. Musienko, C. Regenfus, S. Reucroft, and J. Swain, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 58 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang, S. N. Dzhosyuk, J. M. Gabrielse, P. R. Huffman, C. E. H. Mattoni, S. E. Maxwell, D. N. McKinsey, and J. M. Doyle, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 508, 388 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Solovov, F. Neves, V. Chepel, M. I. Lopes, R. F. Marques, and A. J. P. L. Policarpo, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Waks, K. Inoue, W. D. Oliver, E. Diamanti, and Y. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Akiba and M. Fujiwara, Opt. Lett. 28, 1010 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. Moszynski, W. Czarnacki, M. Szawlowski, B. L. Zhou, M. Kapusta, D. Wolski, and P. Schotanus, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49, 971 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (6)

M. M. Hayat, Z. Chen, and M. A. Karim, IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 20, 344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. J. McIntyre, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 46, 1623 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Yuan, K. A. Ansselm, C. Nie, C. Lenox, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, J. C. Campbell, and R. J. McIntyre, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 46, 1632 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 902 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Takeuchi, J. Kim, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1063 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Fox, N. Woodard, and G. P. Lafyatis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1951 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

N. G. Woodard, E. G. Hufstedler, and G. P. Lafyatis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1177 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

R. J. McIntyre, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-19, 703 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Akiba, M.

Ansselm, K. A.

P. Yuan, K. A. Ansselm, C. Nie, C. Lenox, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, J. C. Campbell, and R. J. McIntyre, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 46, 1632 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. C.

P. Yuan, K. A. Ansselm, C. Nie, C. Lenox, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, J. C. Campbell, and R. J. McIntyre, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 46, 1632 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

M. M. Hayat, Z. Chen, and M. A. Karim, IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 20, 344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chepel, V.

V. N. Solovov, F. Neves, V. Chepel, M. I. Lopes, R. F. Marques, and A. J. P. L. Policarpo, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Czarnacki, W.

M. Moszynski, W. Czarnacki, M. Szawlowski, B. L. Zhou, M. Kapusta, D. Wolski, and P. Schotanus, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49, 971 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Diamanti, E.

E. Waks, K. Inoue, W. D. Oliver, E. Diamanti, and Y. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dorkhov, A.

A. Dorkhov, A. Glauser, Y. Musienko, C. Regenfus, S. Reucroft, and J. Swain, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 58 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, J. M.

L. Yang, S. N. Dzhosyuk, J. M. Gabrielse, P. R. Huffman, C. E. H. Mattoni, S. E. Maxwell, D. N. McKinsey, and J. M. Doyle, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 508, 388 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dzhosyuk, S. N.

L. Yang, S. N. Dzhosyuk, J. M. Gabrielse, P. R. Huffman, C. E. H. Mattoni, S. E. Maxwell, D. N. McKinsey, and J. M. Doyle, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 508, 388 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fox, J. J.

J. J. Fox, N. Woodard, and G. P. Lafyatis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1951 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

Gabrielse, J. M.

L. Yang, S. N. Dzhosyuk, J. M. Gabrielse, P. R. Huffman, C. E. H. Mattoni, S. E. Maxwell, D. N. McKinsey, and J. M. Doyle, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 508, 388 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Glauser, A.

A. Dorkhov, A. Glauser, Y. Musienko, C. Regenfus, S. Reucroft, and J. Swain, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 58 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hayat, M. M.

M. M. Hayat, Z. Chen, and M. A. Karim, IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 20, 344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hogue, H. H.

S. Takeuchi, J. Kim, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1063 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 902 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, A. L.

P. Yuan, K. A. Ansselm, C. Nie, C. Lenox, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, J. C. Campbell, and R. J. McIntyre, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 46, 1632 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, P. R.

L. Yang, S. N. Dzhosyuk, J. M. Gabrielse, P. R. Huffman, C. E. H. Mattoni, S. E. Maxwell, D. N. McKinsey, and J. M. Doyle, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 508, 388 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hufstedler, E. G.

N. G. Woodard, E. G. Hufstedler, and G. P. Lafyatis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1177 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

E. Waks, K. Inoue, W. D. Oliver, E. Diamanti, and Y. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kapusta, M.

M. Moszynski, W. Czarnacki, M. Szawlowski, B. L. Zhou, M. Kapusta, D. Wolski, and P. Schotanus, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49, 971 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Karim, M. A.

M. M. Hayat, Z. Chen, and M. A. Karim, IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 20, 344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

S. Takeuchi, J. Kim, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1063 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 902 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lafyatis, G. P.

J. J. Fox, N. Woodard, and G. P. Lafyatis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1951 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Woodard, E. G. Hufstedler, and G. P. Lafyatis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1177 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lenox, C.

P. Yuan, K. A. Ansselm, C. Nie, C. Lenox, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, J. C. Campbell, and R. J. McIntyre, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 46, 1632 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lopes, M. I.

V. N. Solovov, F. Neves, V. Chepel, M. I. Lopes, R. F. Marques, and A. J. P. L. Policarpo, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marques, R. F.

V. N. Solovov, F. Neves, V. Chepel, M. I. Lopes, R. F. Marques, and A. J. P. L. Policarpo, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mattoni, C. E. H.

L. Yang, S. N. Dzhosyuk, J. M. Gabrielse, P. R. Huffman, C. E. H. Mattoni, S. E. Maxwell, D. N. McKinsey, and J. M. Doyle, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 508, 388 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maxwell, S. E.

L. Yang, S. N. Dzhosyuk, J. M. Gabrielse, P. R. Huffman, C. E. H. Mattoni, S. E. Maxwell, D. N. McKinsey, and J. M. Doyle, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 508, 388 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McIntyre, R. J.

R. J. McIntyre, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 46, 1623 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Yuan, K. A. Ansselm, C. Nie, C. Lenox, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, J. C. Campbell, and R. J. McIntyre, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 46, 1632 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. J. McIntyre, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-19, 703 (1972).
[CrossRef]

McKinsey, D. N.

L. Yang, S. N. Dzhosyuk, J. M. Gabrielse, P. R. Huffman, C. E. H. Mattoni, S. E. Maxwell, D. N. McKinsey, and J. M. Doyle, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 508, 388 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moszynski, M.

M. Moszynski, W. Czarnacki, M. Szawlowski, B. L. Zhou, M. Kapusta, D. Wolski, and P. Schotanus, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49, 971 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Musienko, Y.

A. Dorkhov, A. Glauser, Y. Musienko, C. Regenfus, S. Reucroft, and J. Swain, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 58 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Neves, F.

V. N. Solovov, F. Neves, V. Chepel, M. I. Lopes, R. F. Marques, and A. J. P. L. Policarpo, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nie, C.

P. Yuan, K. A. Ansselm, C. Nie, C. Lenox, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, J. C. Campbell, and R. J. McIntyre, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 46, 1632 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, W. D.

E. Waks, K. Inoue, W. D. Oliver, E. Diamanti, and Y. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Policarpo, A. J. P. L.

V. N. Solovov, F. Neves, V. Chepel, M. I. Lopes, R. F. Marques, and A. J. P. L. Policarpo, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Regenfus, C.

A. Dorkhov, A. Glauser, Y. Musienko, C. Regenfus, S. Reucroft, and J. Swain, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 58 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reucroft, S.

A. Dorkhov, A. Glauser, Y. Musienko, C. Regenfus, S. Reucroft, and J. Swain, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 58 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schotanus, P.

M. Moszynski, W. Czarnacki, M. Szawlowski, B. L. Zhou, M. Kapusta, D. Wolski, and P. Schotanus, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49, 971 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Solovov, V. N.

V. N. Solovov, F. Neves, V. Chepel, M. I. Lopes, R. F. Marques, and A. J. P. L. Policarpo, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Streetman, B. G.

P. Yuan, K. A. Ansselm, C. Nie, C. Lenox, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, J. C. Campbell, and R. J. McIntyre, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 46, 1632 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Swain, J.

A. Dorkhov, A. Glauser, Y. Musienko, C. Regenfus, S. Reucroft, and J. Swain, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 58 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Szawlowski, M.

M. Moszynski, W. Czarnacki, M. Szawlowski, B. L. Zhou, M. Kapusta, D. Wolski, and P. Schotanus, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49, 971 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, S.

J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 902 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Takeuchi, J. Kim, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1063 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Waks, E.

E. Waks, K. Inoue, W. D. Oliver, E. Diamanti, and Y. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wolski, D.

M. Moszynski, W. Czarnacki, M. Szawlowski, B. L. Zhou, M. Kapusta, D. Wolski, and P. Schotanus, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49, 971 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Woodard, N.

J. J. Fox, N. Woodard, and G. P. Lafyatis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1951 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Woodard, N. G.

N. G. Woodard, E. G. Hufstedler, and G. P. Lafyatis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1177 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

E. Waks, K. Inoue, W. D. Oliver, E. Diamanti, and Y. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 902 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Takeuchi, J. Kim, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1063 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

L. Yang, S. N. Dzhosyuk, J. M. Gabrielse, P. R. Huffman, C. E. H. Mattoni, S. E. Maxwell, D. N. McKinsey, and J. M. Doyle, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 508, 388 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, P.

P. Yuan, K. A. Ansselm, C. Nie, C. Lenox, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, J. C. Campbell, and R. J. McIntyre, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 46, 1632 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, B. L.

M. Moszynski, W. Czarnacki, M. Szawlowski, B. L. Zhou, M. Kapusta, D. Wolski, and P. Schotanus, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49, 971 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

N. G. Woodard, E. G. Hufstedler, and G. P. Lafyatis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1177 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 902 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Takeuchi, J. Kim, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1063 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron. Device Lett. (1)

M. M. Hayat, Z. Chen, and M. A. Karim, IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 20, 344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. Waks, K. Inoue, W. D. Oliver, E. Diamanti, and Y. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (2)

R. J. McIntyre, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 46, 1623 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Yuan, K. A. Ansselm, C. Nie, C. Lenox, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, J. C. Campbell, and R. J. McIntyre, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 46, 1632 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices (1)

R. J. McIntyre, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-19, 703 (1972).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

M. Moszynski, W. Czarnacki, M. Szawlowski, B. L. Zhou, M. Kapusta, D. Wolski, and P. Schotanus, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49, 971 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (3)

V. N. Solovov, F. Neves, V. Chepel, M. I. Lopes, R. F. Marques, and A. J. P. L. Policarpo, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Dorkhov, A. Glauser, Y. Musienko, C. Regenfus, S. Reucroft, and J. Swain, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 504, 58 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang, S. N. Dzhosyuk, J. M. Gabrielse, P. R. Huffman, C. E. H. Mattoni, S. E. Maxwell, D. N. McKinsey, and J. M. Doyle, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 508, 388 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. J. Fox, N. Woodard, and G. P. Lafyatis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1951 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic response of the readout circuit to the light pulses. The interval of the light pulses is 50 ms. The average intensity of the LED light was controlled by varying the pulse width from 0.27 ms for one photoelectron to 3.1 ms for ten photoelectrons. V1 is the ith voltage averaged for a period of 40 ms during the intervals between light pulses. The integrated charge Qi of the ith output signal for the ith light pulse is given by Qi=CfVi+1-Vi, where Cf is a feedback capacitance.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mean gain of the APD as a function of reverse bias voltage.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured electron-number distributions at the APD anode (solid curves) for mean numbers of photoelectrons equal to 1, 3, and 10 at gains of (a) 10.8 and (b) 31.1. The dashed curves are calculated distributions. The distributions for a mean photoelectron number of 1 in (b) are displaced horizontally by -100 for clarity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of the excess noise factor on the number of photoelectrons at gains of 10.8 and 31.1. The total excess noise factor includes both readout noise and APD noise.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Nx=12πσlPnlexp-x-Ml2/2σ2,
F=kM+2-1/M1-k,

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