Abstract

We demonstrate integrated semiconductor optical devices with ultrafast temporal responses based on the plasma-dispersion effect. The geometry of the devices removes the dependence of the modulation time on the free-carrier dynamics. We present the theoretical analysis of the performance of such devices. We show that a silicon-based device with a free-carrier lifetime of 1.4 ns can be modulated on a time scale of only 20 ps. The ultrafast operation is verified experimentally.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, Proc. SPIE 704, 32 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and Chi H. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 36 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, K. Ritter, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, J. Goldhar, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 74 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, Electron. Lett. 28, 83 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. V. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 28, 1302 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 30, 35 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, M. A. Foster, D. G. Ouzounov, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 29, 2867 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, and R. R. Panepucci, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and Chi H. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 28, 1302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, K. Ritter, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, J. Goldhar, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 74 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, Electron. Lett. 28, 83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, Proc. SPIE 704, 32 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Absil, P. P.

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, K. Ritter, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, J. Goldhar, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 74 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V.

Almeida, V. R.

Barrios, C. A.

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, Proc. SPIE 704, 32 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and Chi H. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cocorullo, G.

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, Electron. Lett. 28, 83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dinu, M.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, M. A.

Gaeta, A. L.

Garcia, H.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goldhar, J.

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and Chi H. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, K. Ritter, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, J. Goldhar, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 74 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grover, R.

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, K. Ritter, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, J. Goldhar, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 74 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hak, D.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, P.-T.

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and Chi H. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, K. Ritter, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, J. Goldhar, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 74 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ibrahim, T. A.

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and Chi H. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, K. Ritter, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, J. Goldhar, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 74 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, F. G.

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, K. Ritter, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, J. Goldhar, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 74 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and Chi H. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Chi H.

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and Chi H. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and Chi H. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicolaescu, R.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ouzounov, D. G.

Panepucci, R. R.

Paniccia, M.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quochi, F.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rendina, I.

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, Electron. Lett. 28, 83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ritter, K.

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, K. Ritter, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, J. Goldhar, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 74 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rong, H.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, Proc. SPIE 704, 32 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Van, V.

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, K. Ritter, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, J. Goldhar, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 74 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, Electron. Lett. 28, 83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and Chi H. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, K. Ritter, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, J. Goldhar, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 74 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, and R. R. Panepucci, Nature 431, 1081 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, Nature 433, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, Proc. SPIE 704, 32 (1986).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of ultrafast semiconductor optical devices, showing the (a) Mach–Zehnder and (b) Sagnac interferometer approaches. Pump and probe beams are counterpropagating.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated temporal response of an ultrafast Mach–Zehnder all-optical device for (a) balanced ( ϕ MZ = 0 ) and (b) unbalanced ( ϕ MZ = π rad ) arms. Solid and dotted curves represent pump pulse intervals τ int of 0.5 and 1.5 ns, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Microscopic image of the splitting region and the narrow–wide waveguide transition region of the MZI. (b), (c) Measured temporal response of the MZI ultrafast modulators with (b) balanced arms ( L = 4 mm ) and (c) slightly unbalanced ( π rad ) arms ( L = 3 mm ) .

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