Abstract

Images with a spatial resolution of 120150nm were obtained with 46.9nm light from a compact capillary-discharge laser by use of the combination of a Sc–Si multilayer-coated Schwarzschild condenser and a free-standing imaging zone plate. The results are relevant to the development of compact extreme-ultraviolet laser-based imaging tools for nanoscience and nanotechnology.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2003 (1)

2002 (2)

M. Wieland, R. Frueke, T. Wilhein, C. Spielmann, M. Pohl, and U. Kleineberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, H. M. Hertz, and M. Berglund, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1193 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. Liu, M. Seminario, F. G. Tomasel, C. Chang, J. J. Rocca, and D. T. Attwood, Phys. Rev. A 63, 033802 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

1995 (1)

1992 (2)

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

The simulations were performed with the SPLAT program described in K. K. H. Toh and A. R. Neureuther, Proc. SPIE 772, 202 (1987). The program can be accessed at http://cuervo.eecs.berkeley.edu/Volcano/.
[CrossRef]

Alessi, D.

Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, D. Alessi, M. Berrill, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and J. J. Rocca, “Demonstration of saturated high repetition rate tabletop soft x-ray lasers at wavelengths down to 13.9 nm,” submitted to Phys. Rev. A.

Anderson, E.

Anderson, E. H.

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Artioukov, I. A.

Asadchikov, V. E.

Attwood, D.

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D. T.

W. Chao, E. Anderson, G. P. Denbeaux, B. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, D. L. Olynick, A. L. Pearson, F. Salmassi, C. Y. Song, and D. T. Attwood, Opt. Lett. 28, 2019 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, M. Seminario, F. G. Tomasel, C. Chang, J. J. Rocca, and D. T. Attwood, Phys. Rev. A 63, 033802 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Da Silva, J. E. Trebes, S. Mrowka, T. W. Barbee, J. Brase, J. A. Koch, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, D. Minyard, G. Stone, T. Yorkey, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, and D. Kern, Opt. Lett. 17, 754 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Libertun, X. Zhang, A. Paul, D. Raymondson, E. Gershgoren, E. Gagnon, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. A. Bartels, Y. Liu, and D. T. Attwood, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper JMD4.

Backus, S.

A. R. Libertun, X. Zhang, A. Paul, D. Raymondson, E. Gershgoren, E. Gagnon, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. A. Bartels, Y. Liu, and D. T. Attwood, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper JMD4.

Barbee, T. W.

Bartels, R. A.

A. R. Libertun, X. Zhang, A. Paul, D. Raymondson, E. Gershgoren, E. Gagnon, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. A. Bartels, Y. Liu, and D. T. Attwood, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper JMD4.

Benware, B. R.

C. D. Macchietto, B. R. Benware, and J. J. Rocca, Opt. Lett. 24, 1115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, and J. J. Rocca, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Berglund, M.

G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, H. M. Hertz, and M. Berglund, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1193 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Berrill, M.

Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, D. Alessi, M. Berrill, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and J. J. Rocca, “Demonstration of saturated high repetition rate tabletop soft x-ray lasers at wavelengths down to 13.9 nm,” submitted to Phys. Rev. A.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), pp. 461–472, 595–606.

Brase, J.

Byer, R. L.

Chang, C.

Y. Liu, M. Seminario, F. G. Tomasel, C. Chang, J. J. Rocca, and D. T. Attwood, Phys. Rev. A 63, 033802 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chao, W.

W. Chao, E. Anderson, G. P. Denbeaux, B. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, D. L. Olynick, A. L. Pearson, F. Salmassi, C. Y. Song, and D. T. Attwood, Opt. Lett. 28, 2019 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Da Silva, L. B.

Denbeaux, G.

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Denbeaux, G. P.

DiCicco, D. S.

Fedorenko, A. I.

Fedotov, V. Yu.

Frueke, R.

M. Wieland, R. Frueke, T. Wilhein, C. Spielmann, M. Pohl, and U. Kleineberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gagnon, E.

A. R. Libertun, X. Zhang, A. Paul, D. Raymondson, E. Gershgoren, E. Gagnon, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. A. Bartels, Y. Liu, and D. T. Attwood, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper JMD4.

Gershgoren, E.

A. R. Libertun, X. Zhang, A. Paul, D. Raymondson, E. Gershgoren, E. Gagnon, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. A. Bartels, Y. Liu, and D. T. Attwood, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper JMD4.

Harteneck, B.

W. Chao, E. Anderson, G. P. Denbeaux, B. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, D. L. Olynick, A. L. Pearson, F. Salmassi, C. Y. Song, and D. T. Attwood, Opt. Lett. 28, 2019 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hertz, H. M.

G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, H. M. Hertz, and M. Berglund, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1193 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Holmberg, A.

G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, H. M. Hertz, and M. Berglund, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1193 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, G. A.

G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, H. M. Hertz, and M. Berglund, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1193 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, L.

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

A. R. Libertun, X. Zhang, A. Paul, D. Raymondson, E. Gershgoren, E. Gagnon, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. A. Bartels, Y. Liu, and D. T. Attwood, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper JMD4.

Kasyanov, Y. S.

Kern, D.

Kim, D.

Kleineberg, U.

M. Wieland, R. Frueke, T. Wilhein, C. Spielmann, M. Pohl, and U. Kleineberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koch, J. A.

Kondratenko, V. V.

Larotonda, M. A.

Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, D. Alessi, M. Berrill, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and J. J. Rocca, “Demonstration of saturated high repetition rate tabletop soft x-ray lasers at wavelengths down to 13.9 nm,” submitted to Phys. Rev. A.

Levashov, V. E.

Libertun, A. R.

A. R. Libertun, X. Zhang, A. Paul, D. Raymondson, E. Gershgoren, E. Gagnon, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. A. Bartels, Y. Liu, and D. T. Attwood, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper JMD4.

Liddle, J. A.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, M. Seminario, F. G. Tomasel, C. Chang, J. J. Rocca, and D. T. Attwood, Phys. Rev. A 63, 033802 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Libertun, X. Zhang, A. Paul, D. Raymondson, E. Gershgoren, E. Gagnon, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. A. Bartels, Y. Liu, and D. T. Attwood, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper JMD4.

London, R. A.

Lucero, A.

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Luther, B. M.

Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, D. Alessi, M. Berrill, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and J. J. Rocca, “Demonstration of saturated high repetition rate tabletop soft x-ray lasers at wavelengths down to 13.9 nm,” submitted to Phys. Rev. A.

Macchietto, C. D.

C. D. Macchietto, B. R. Benware, and J. J. Rocca, Opt. Lett. 24, 1115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, and J. J. Rocca, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804 (1998).
[CrossRef]

MacGowan, B. J.

Matthews, D. L.

Minyard, D.

Moreno, C. H.

B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, and J. J. Rocca, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mrowka, S.

Murnane, M. M.

A. R. Libertun, X. Zhang, A. Paul, D. Raymondson, E. Gershgoren, E. Gagnon, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. A. Bartels, Y. Liu, and D. T. Attwood, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper JMD4.

Neureuther, A. R.

The simulations were performed with the SPLAT program described in K. K. H. Toh and A. R. Neureuther, Proc. SPIE 772, 202 (1987). The program can be accessed at http://cuervo.eecs.berkeley.edu/Volcano/.
[CrossRef]

Olynick, D. L.

W. Chao, E. Anderson, G. P. Denbeaux, B. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, D. L. Olynick, A. L. Pearson, F. Salmassi, C. Y. Song, and D. T. Attwood, Opt. Lett. 28, 2019 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paul, A.

A. R. Libertun, X. Zhang, A. Paul, D. Raymondson, E. Gershgoren, E. Gagnon, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. A. Bartels, Y. Liu, and D. T. Attwood, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper JMD4.

Pearson, A. L.

Pershin, Yu. P.

Pohl, M.

M. Wieland, R. Frueke, T. Wilhein, C. Spielmann, M. Pohl, and U. Kleineberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Raymondson, D.

A. R. Libertun, X. Zhang, A. Paul, D. Raymondson, E. Gershgoren, E. Gagnon, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. A. Bartels, Y. Liu, and D. T. Attwood, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper JMD4.

Rocca, J. J.

Y. Liu, M. Seminario, F. G. Tomasel, C. Chang, J. J. Rocca, and D. T. Attwood, Phys. Rev. A 63, 033802 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Macchietto, B. R. Benware, and J. J. Rocca, Opt. Lett. 24, 1115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, and J. J. Rocca, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, D. Alessi, M. Berrill, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and J. J. Rocca, “Demonstration of saturated high repetition rate tabletop soft x-ray lasers at wavelengths down to 13.9 nm,” submitted to Phys. Rev. A.

Rosser, R.

Salmassi, F.

Seminario, M.

Y. Liu, M. Seminario, F. G. Tomasel, C. Chang, J. J. Rocca, and D. T. Attwood, Phys. Rev. A 63, 033802 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Serov, R. V.

Shlyaptsev, V. N.

Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, D. Alessi, M. Berrill, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and J. J. Rocca, “Demonstration of saturated high repetition rate tabletop soft x-ray lasers at wavelengths down to 13.9 nm,” submitted to Phys. Rev. A.

Song, C. Y.

Spielmann, C.

M. Wieland, R. Frueke, T. Wilhein, C. Spielmann, M. Pohl, and U. Kleineberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stone, G.

Suckewer, S.

Toh, K. K. H.

The simulations were performed with the SPLAT program described in K. K. H. Toh and A. R. Neureuther, Proc. SPIE 772, 202 (1987). The program can be accessed at http://cuervo.eecs.berkeley.edu/Volcano/.
[CrossRef]

Tomasel, F. G.

Y. Liu, M. Seminario, F. G. Tomasel, C. Chang, J. J. Rocca, and D. T. Attwood, Phys. Rev. A 63, 033802 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Trail, J. A.

Trebes, J. E.

Uspenskii, Yu. A.

Veklerov, E.

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vinogradov, A. V.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, D. Alessi, M. Berrill, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and J. J. Rocca, “Demonstration of saturated high repetition rate tabletop soft x-ray lasers at wavelengths down to 13.9 nm,” submitted to Phys. Rev. A.

Wieland, M.

M. Wieland, R. Frueke, T. Wilhein, C. Spielmann, M. Pohl, and U. Kleineberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wilhein, T.

M. Wieland, R. Frueke, T. Wilhein, C. Spielmann, M. Pohl, and U. Kleineberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), pp. 461–472, 595–606.

Yorkey, T.

Yulin, S. A.

Zhang, X.

A. R. Libertun, X. Zhang, A. Paul, D. Raymondson, E. Gershgoren, E. Gagnon, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. A. Bartels, Y. Liu, and D. T. Attwood, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper JMD4.

Zubarev, E. N.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Wieland, R. Frueke, T. Wilhein, C. Spielmann, M. Pohl, and U. Kleineberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

E. H. Anderson, D. L. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

Y. Liu, M. Seminario, F. G. Tomasel, C. Chang, J. J. Rocca, and D. T. Attwood, Phys. Rev. A 63, 033802 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, and J. J. Rocca, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

The simulations were performed with the SPLAT program described in K. K. H. Toh and A. R. Neureuther, Proc. SPIE 772, 202 (1987). The program can be accessed at http://cuervo.eecs.berkeley.edu/Volcano/.
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, H. M. Hertz, and M. Berglund, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1193 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

A. R. Libertun, X. Zhang, A. Paul, D. Raymondson, E. Gershgoren, E. Gagnon, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. A. Bartels, Y. Liu, and D. T. Attwood, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper JMD4.

Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, D. Alessi, M. Berrill, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and J. J. Rocca, “Demonstration of saturated high repetition rate tabletop soft x-ray lasers at wavelengths down to 13.9 nm,” submitted to Phys. Rev. A.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1999), pp. 461–472, 595–606.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the EUV imaging system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Image of a ring test pattern obtained with a compact 46.9 nm capillary-discharge laser and a zone-plate-based imaging system with 200 nm outer zone width and 470 × magnification. The orifices that compose the central ring of the test pattern have a width of 100 nm . The exposure time was 10 s (10 laser shots).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission mode images, obtained at 46.9 nm , of a free-standing zone-plate test pattern with outermost zones of 200 nm opaque and clear rings: (a) middle area ( 250 × magnification), (b) outer region ( 750 × magnification) with 200 nm outermost zones. (c) Image cross section obtained within the rectangle outlined in (b). The average modulation of the image is 94%, suggesting that the spatial resolution of the microscope is significantly better than 200 nm . Both images were obtained with 10 s exposure times.

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