Abstract

A novel mode-locking technique is presented in which the intensity-dependent spatial coupling dynamics of a waveguide array is used to achieve temporal mode-locking in a passive optical fiber laser. By use of the discrete, nearest-neighbor spatial coupling of the waveguide array, low-intensity light can be transferred to the neighboring waveguides and ejected (attenuated) from the laser cavity. In contrast, higher-intensity light is self-focused in the waveguide and remains largely unaffected. Numerical studies of this pulse-shaping mechanism (intensity discrimination) show that using current waveguide arrays and standard optical fiber technology produces stable and robust mode-locked soliton-like pulses.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  2. I. N. Duling and M. L. Dennis, Compact Sources of Ultrashort Pulses (Cambridge U. Press, 1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. A. Haus and W. S. Wong, Rev. Mod. Phys. 68, 423 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. H. S. Eisenberg, R. Morandotti, Y. Silberberg, J. M. Arnold, G. Pennelli, and J. S. Aitchison, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2938 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. U. Peschel, R. Morandotti, J. M. Arnold, J. S. Aitchison, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, T. Pertsch, and F. Lederer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2637 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2000 (1)

H. A. Haus, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1173 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd, and J. S. Aitchison, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3383 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

A. B. Aceves, C. De Angelis, T. Peschel, R. Muschall, F. Lederer, S. Trillo, and S. Wabnitz, Phys. Rev. E 53, 1172 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus and W. S. Wong, Rev. Mod. Phys. 68, 423 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1988 (1)

Aceves, A. B.

A. B. Aceves, C. De Angelis, T. Peschel, R. Muschall, F. Lederer, S. Trillo, and S. Wabnitz, Phys. Rev. E 53, 1172 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

Arnold, J. M.

Boyd, A. R.

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd, and J. S. Aitchison, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3383 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, T.

Christodoulides, D. N.

Couilland, B.

L. Spinelli, B. Couilland, N. Goldblatt, and D. K. Negus, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1991), paper CPDP7.

Curley, P. F.

De Angelis, C.

A. B. Aceves, C. De Angelis, T. Peschel, R. Muschall, F. Lederer, S. Trillo, and S. Wabnitz, Phys. Rev. E 53, 1172 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dennis, M. L.

I. N. Duling and M. L. Dennis, Compact Sources of Ultrashort Pulses (Cambridge U. Press, 1995).
[CrossRef]

Duling, I. N.

I. N. Duling and M. L. Dennis, Compact Sources of Ultrashort Pulses (Cambridge U. Press, 1995).
[CrossRef]

Eisenberg, H. S.

Goldblatt, N.

L. Spinelli, B. Couilland, N. Goldblatt, and D. K. Negus, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1991), paper CPDP7.

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1173 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus and W. S. Wong, Rev. Mod. Phys. 68, 423 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Joseph, R. I.

Krausz, F.

Lederer, F.

U. Peschel, R. Morandotti, J. M. Arnold, J. S. Aitchison, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, T. Pertsch, and F. Lederer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2637 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Aceves, C. De Angelis, T. Peschel, R. Muschall, F. Lederer, S. Trillo, and S. Wabnitz, Phys. Rev. E 53, 1172 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Morandotti, R.

Muschall, R.

A. B. Aceves, C. De Angelis, T. Peschel, R. Muschall, F. Lederer, S. Trillo, and S. Wabnitz, Phys. Rev. E 53, 1172 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Negus, D. K.

L. Spinelli, B. Couilland, N. Goldblatt, and D. K. Negus, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1991), paper CPDP7.

Pennelli, G.

Pertsch, T.

Peschel, T.

A. B. Aceves, C. De Angelis, T. Peschel, R. Muschall, F. Lederer, S. Trillo, and S. Wabnitz, Phys. Rev. E 53, 1172 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Peschel, U.

Silberberg, Y.

Spielmann, C.

Spinelli, L.

L. Spinelli, B. Couilland, N. Goldblatt, and D. K. Negus, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1991), paper CPDP7.

Trillo, S.

A. B. Aceves, C. De Angelis, T. Peschel, R. Muschall, F. Lederer, S. Trillo, and S. Wabnitz, Phys. Rev. E 53, 1172 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wabnitz, S.

A. B. Aceves, C. De Angelis, T. Peschel, R. Muschall, F. Lederer, S. Trillo, and S. Wabnitz, Phys. Rev. E 53, 1172 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W. S.

H. A. Haus and W. S. Wong, Rev. Mod. Phys. 68, 423 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. A. Haus, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1173 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

A. B. Aceves, C. De Angelis, T. Peschel, R. Muschall, F. Lederer, S. Trillo, and S. Wabnitz, Phys. Rev. E 53, 1172 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd, and J. S. Aitchison, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3383 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

H. A. Haus and W. S. Wong, Rev. Mod. Phys. 68, 423 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

L. Spinelli, B. Couilland, N. Goldblatt, and D. K. Negus, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1991), paper CPDP7.

I. N. Duling and M. L. Dennis, Compact Sources of Ultrashort Pulses (Cambridge U. Press, 1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Possible laser cavity configurations, (a) linear and (b) ring, that contain a waveguide array as the mode-locking (intensity discrimination) element. The waveguide array is butt coupled to the optical fiber, as demonstrated in Fig. 2. In addition to this basic design, isolators, optical filters, index-matching material, and polarization controllers may be necessary to help further stabilize the mode- locking.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Butt coupling of a waveguide array to optical fiber laser cavities of Fig. 1 (not to scale).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Self-focusing behavior in the waveguide array ( N = 20 ) that results from discrete coupling. For low intensities (top), the launch of A 0 ( 0 ) = 1 into the central waveguide leads to diffractive spreading. In contrast, higher intensities [ A 0 ( 0 ) = 3 ] self-focus and prevent diffractive spreading.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporal pulse shaping, which occurs in the waveguide array for central waveguide launch conditions η sech T . Here η = 1 , 2, 3. As the power is increased, the pulse is increasingly narrowed temporally, giving the necessary pulse shaping required for the mode-locking element.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Mode-locked pulse formation in a 5 m optical fiber ring cavity [Fig. 1(b)] with a 6 mm waveguide array.

Equations (2)

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i Q Z + 1 2 2 Q T 2 + Q 2 Q + i γ Q i g ( 1 + τ 2 T 2 ) Q = 0 ,
i d A n d ξ + C ( A n 1 + A n + 1 ) + β A n 2 A n = 0 ,

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