Abstract

We have locked the frequency of a 3THz quantum cascade laser (QCL) to that of a far-infrared gas laser with a tunable microwave offset frequency. The locked QCL line shape is essentially Gaussian, with linewidths of 65 and 141kHz at the 3 and 10dB levels, respectively. The lock condition can be maintained indefinitely, without requiring temperature or bias current regulation of the QCL other than that provided by the lock error signal. The result demonstrates that a terahertz QCL can be frequency controlled with 1-part-in-108 accuracy, which is a factor of 100 better than that needed for a local oscillator in a heterodyne receiver for atmospheric and astronomic spectroscopy.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselman’s, A. Baryshev, M. Majenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “A terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett. (2005).
  2. A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, and D. A. Ritchie, Opt. Lett. 29, 575 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, D. A. Ritchie, S. Withington, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, and J. Faist, Opt. Lett. 29, 1632 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2124 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Zmuidzinas, A. L. Betz, and R. T. Boreiko, Infrared Phys. 29, 119 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. G. Douglas, Millimetre and Submillimetre Wavelength Lasers, Vol. 61 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, 1989).
  8. A. Betz and R. T. Boreiko, in Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., March 21–23, 1996, pp. 28-33.
  9. A. Betz and R. T. Boreiko, in Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va., March 12–14, 1996 pp. 503–510.
  10. A. L. Betz, R. T. Boreiko, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, in Proceedings of Fifteenth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, University of Massachusetts, Northampton, Mass., April 27–29, 2004, pp. 328–334.
  11. W. J. Moore and R. T. Holm, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6939 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Debernardi and M. Cardona, Phys. Rev. B 54, 11,305 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, S. Kohen, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2494 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2004

2003

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1996

W. J. Moore and R. T. Holm, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6939 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Debernardi and M. Cardona, Phys. Rev. B 54, 11,305 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1989

J. Zmuidzinas, A. L. Betz, and R. T. Boreiko, Infrared Phys. 29, 119 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Adam, A. J. L.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselman’s, A. Baryshev, M. Majenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “A terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett. (2005).

Ajili, L.

Alton, J.

Barbieri, S.

Barkan, A.

Baryshev, A.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselman’s, A. Baryshev, M. Majenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “A terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett. (2005).

Baselman’s, J. J. A.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselman’s, A. Baryshev, M. Majenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “A terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett. (2005).

Beere, H. E.

Betz, A.

A. Betz and R. T. Boreiko, in Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., March 21–23, 1996, pp. 28-33.

A. Betz and R. T. Boreiko, in Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va., March 12–14, 1996 pp. 503–510.

Betz, A. L.

J. Zmuidzinas, A. L. Betz, and R. T. Boreiko, Infrared Phys. 29, 119 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Betz, R. T. Boreiko, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, in Proceedings of Fifteenth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, University of Massachusetts, Northampton, Mass., April 27–29, 2004, pp. 328–334.

Boreiko, R. T.

J. Zmuidzinas, A. L. Betz, and R. T. Boreiko, Infrared Phys. 29, 119 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Betz and R. T. Boreiko, in Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., March 21–23, 1996, pp. 28-33.

A. L. Betz, R. T. Boreiko, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, in Proceedings of Fifteenth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, University of Massachusetts, Northampton, Mass., April 27–29, 2004, pp. 328–334.

A. Betz and R. T. Boreiko, in Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va., March 12–14, 1996 pp. 503–510.

Callebaut, H.

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cardona, M.

A. Debernardi and M. Cardona, Phys. Rev. B 54, 11,305 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Davies, A. G.

Debernardi, A.

A. Debernardi and M. Cardona, Phys. Rev. B 54, 11,305 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dengler, R.

Douglas, N. G.

N. G. Douglas, Millimetre and Submillimetre Wavelength Lasers, Vol. 61 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, 1989).

Faist, J.

Gao, J. R.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselman’s, A. Baryshev, M. Majenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “A terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett. (2005).

Holm, R. T.

W. J. Moore and R. T. Holm, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6939 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hovenier, J. N.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselman’s, A. Baryshev, M. Majenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “A terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett. (2005).

Hu, Q.

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, S. Kohen, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2494 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Betz, R. T. Boreiko, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, in Proceedings of Fifteenth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, University of Massachusetts, Northampton, Mass., April 27–29, 2004, pp. 328–334.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselman’s, A. Baryshev, M. Majenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “A terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett. (2005).

Klapwijk, T. M.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselman’s, A. Baryshev, M. Majenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “A terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett. (2005).

Klassen, T. O.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselman’s, A. Baryshev, M. Majenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “A terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett. (2005).

Kohen, S.

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, S. Kohen, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2494 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, S. Kohen, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2494 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselman’s, A. Baryshev, M. Majenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “A terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett. (2005).

A. L. Betz, R. T. Boreiko, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, in Proceedings of Fifteenth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, University of Massachusetts, Northampton, Mass., April 27–29, 2004, pp. 328–334.

Linfield, E. H.

Majenius, M.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselman’s, A. Baryshev, M. Majenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “A terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett. (2005).

Mittleman, D. M.

Moore, W. J.

W. J. Moore and R. T. Holm, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6939 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J. L.

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, S. Kohen, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2494 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Betz, R. T. Boreiko, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, in Proceedings of Fifteenth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, University of Massachusetts, Northampton, Mass., April 27–29, 2004, pp. 328–334.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselman’s, A. Baryshev, M. Majenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “A terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett. (2005).

Ritchie, D. A.

Scalari, G.

Siegel, P. H.

Tittel, F. K.

Williams, B. S.

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, S. Kohen, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2494 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselman’s, A. Baryshev, M. Majenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “A terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett. (2005).

A. L. Betz, R. T. Boreiko, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, in Proceedings of Fifteenth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, University of Massachusetts, Northampton, Mass., April 27–29, 2004, pp. 328–334.

Withington, S.

Yang, Z. Q.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselman’s, A. Baryshev, M. Majenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “A terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett. (2005).

Zmuidzinas, J.

J. Zmuidzinas, A. L. Betz, and R. T. Boreiko, Infrared Phys. 29, 119 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1015 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, S. Kohen, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2494 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys.

J. Zmuidzinas, A. L. Betz, and R. T. Boreiko, Infrared Phys. 29, 119 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

W. J. Moore and R. T. Holm, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6939 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

A. Debernardi and M. Cardona, Phys. Rev. B 54, 11,305 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other

N. G. Douglas, Millimetre and Submillimetre Wavelength Lasers, Vol. 61 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, 1989).

A. Betz and R. T. Boreiko, in Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., March 21–23, 1996, pp. 28-33.

A. Betz and R. T. Boreiko, in Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va., March 12–14, 1996 pp. 503–510.

A. L. Betz, R. T. Boreiko, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, in Proceedings of Fifteenth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, University of Massachusetts, Northampton, Mass., April 27–29, 2004, pp. 328–334.

J. R. Gao, J. N. Hovenier, Z. Q. Yang, J. J. A. Baselman’s, A. Baryshev, M. Majenius, T. M. Klapwijk, A. J. L. Adam, T. O. Klassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “A terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett. (2005).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the experimental apparatus. The 24.6 GHz signal is injected into the coaxial IF port of the Schottky mixer by use of a directional coupler backward. Not shown are the dc bias circuits for the QCL and the GaAs mixer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

IF signal at 1200 MHz under locked conditions: (a) The frequency resolution of the spectrum analyzer is 100 kHz . Inset, temperature tuning with the QCL unlocked at constant bias. Uncertainties are smaller than the data point sizes. (b) Magnified view at line center with a frequency resolution of 1 kHz and a scan time of 1 min .

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P IF E IF 2 ( E QCL E FIR E rf E rf ) 1 2 .
1 ν d ν d T = ( 1 n d n bulk d T + 1 L d L d T ) ,
1 n bulk d n bulk d T = 6.17 × 10 5 K ,
1 L d L d T = 0.16 × 10 5 K .
R thermal = ( d P d T ) 1 = [ ( I V I + V ) I T ] 1 = 16.4 K W ,

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