Abstract

Imaging laser radar (ladar) systems have been developed for automatic target identification in surveillance systems. Ladar uses the range value at the target pixels to estimate the target’s 3-D shape and identify the target. For targets in clutter and partially hidden targets, there are ambiguities in determining which pixels are on target that lead to uncertainties in determining the target’s 3-D shape. An improvement is to use the polarization components of the reflected light. We describe the operation and preliminary evaluation of a polarization diverse imaging ladar system. Using a combination of intensity, range, and degree of polarization, we are better able to identify and distinguish the target from other objects of the same class.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Breugnot and P. Clemenceau, Opt. Eng. 39, 2681 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Clemenceau, A. Dogario, and J. Stryewski, Proc. SPIE 4035, 401 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Tan, R. M. Narayanan, and J. E. Kalshoven, Proc. SPIE 4377, 263 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Air Force Research Laboratory Advanced Guidance Division, http://www.mn.afrl.af.mil/public/advguid. html.
  5. F. Sadjadi, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (IEEE, 2003), pp. 3659–3661.
  6. A. Toet, Pattern Recogn. Lett. 9, 245 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, and D. G. Stork, Pattern Classification, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2001).

2001 (1)

S. Tan, R. M. Narayanan, and J. E. Kalshoven, Proc. SPIE 4377, 263 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

S. Breugnot and P. Clemenceau, Opt. Eng. 39, 2681 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Clemenceau, A. Dogario, and J. Stryewski, Proc. SPIE 4035, 401 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

A. Toet, Pattern Recogn. Lett. 9, 245 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Breugnot, S.

S. Breugnot and P. Clemenceau, Opt. Eng. 39, 2681 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Clemenceau, P.

S. Breugnot and P. Clemenceau, Opt. Eng. 39, 2681 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Clemenceau, A. Dogario, and J. Stryewski, Proc. SPIE 4035, 401 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dogario, A.

P. Clemenceau, A. Dogario, and J. Stryewski, Proc. SPIE 4035, 401 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Duda, R. O.

R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, and D. G. Stork, Pattern Classification, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2001).

Hart, P. E.

R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, and D. G. Stork, Pattern Classification, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2001).

Kalshoven, J. E.

S. Tan, R. M. Narayanan, and J. E. Kalshoven, Proc. SPIE 4377, 263 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Narayanan, R. M.

S. Tan, R. M. Narayanan, and J. E. Kalshoven, Proc. SPIE 4377, 263 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sadjadi, F.

F. Sadjadi, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (IEEE, 2003), pp. 3659–3661.

Stork, D. G.

R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, and D. G. Stork, Pattern Classification, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2001).

Stryewski, J.

P. Clemenceau, A. Dogario, and J. Stryewski, Proc. SPIE 4035, 401 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tan, S.

S. Tan, R. M. Narayanan, and J. E. Kalshoven, Proc. SPIE 4377, 263 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Toet, A.

A. Toet, Pattern Recogn. Lett. 9, 245 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. Breugnot and P. Clemenceau, Opt. Eng. 39, 2681 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pattern Recogn. Lett. (1)

A. Toet, Pattern Recogn. Lett. 9, 245 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

P. Clemenceau, A. Dogario, and J. Stryewski, Proc. SPIE 4035, 401 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Tan, R. M. Narayanan, and J. E. Kalshoven, Proc. SPIE 4377, 263 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

Air Force Research Laboratory Advanced Guidance Division, http://www.mn.afrl.af.mil/public/advguid. html.

F. Sadjadi, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (IEEE, 2003), pp. 3659–3661.

R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, and D. G. Stork, Pattern Classification, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2001).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Polarization diverse imaging ladar system method.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Polarization diverse imaging ladar output images simulated with IRMA software. A T-72 tank is partially occluded by a tree.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polarimetric image fusion of a T-72 tank that is partially occluded by a tree.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Template matching and cross correlation of a nonoccluded T-72 tank signature and an image from the sensor containing a partially occluded T-72.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Representation of a set of 3-D range imagery of an M-60 tank.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Kullback–Leibler distance.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Bayesian probability of error.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mueller Matrix Elements

Equations (6)

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M = [ 1 0 0 0 0 M 11 0 0 0 0 M 11 0 0 0 0 M 33 ] ,
M PA 1 = 1 2 [ 1 2 3 2 3 3 3 1 2 3 2 3 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ] ,
M PA 2 = 1 2 [ 1 2 3 2 3 3 3 1 2 3 2 3 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ] .
DOP = I 1 I 2 I 1 + I 2 = 1 3 ( 2 M 11 + M 33 ) .
J KL = p ( x ω 1 ) ln [ p ( x ω 1 ) p ( x ω 2 ) ] d x ,
E = min [ p ( ω 1 x ) , p ( ω 2 x ) ] p ( x ) d x ,

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