Abstract

Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT) can image tissue structure and blood flow at micrometer-scale resolution but has limited imaging depth. We report a novel, linear-scanning, needle-based Doppler OCT system using angle-polished gradient-index or ball-lensed fibers. A prototype system with a 19-guage (diameter of 0.9mm) echogenic needle is constructed and demonstrates in vivo imaging of bidirectional blood flow in rat leg and abdominal cavity. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of Doppler OCT through a needle probe in interstitial applications to visualize deeply situated microcirculation.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2004

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 84,85 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2001

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 4251, 156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1997

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

Bisland, S.

Boppart, S. A.

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 84,85 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, Opt. Express 11, 3490 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, OSA Biomedical Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America2004), paper SE5.

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

Chen, Z. P.

Chudoba, C.

Cirocco, M.

S. Tang, M. L. Gordon, V. X.D. Yang, M. E. Faughnan, M. Cirocco, B. Qi, E. Seng-Yue, G. Gardiner, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, P. Kortan, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, Gastrointest. Endosc. 58, 591 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X.D. Yang, S. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, and B. C. Wilson, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in human gastrointestinal tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. (to be published).

Dave, D.

de Boer, J. F.

Faughnan, M. E.

S. Tang, M. L. Gordon, V. X.D. Yang, M. E. Faughnan, M. Cirocco, B. Qi, E. Seng-Yue, G. Gardiner, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, P. Kortan, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, Gastrointest. Endosc. 58, 591 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

X. Li, C. Chudoba, T. Ko, C. Pitris, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 25, 1520 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gardiner, G.

S. Tang, M. L. Gordon, V. X.D. Yang, M. E. Faughnan, M. Cirocco, B. Qi, E. Seng-Yue, G. Gardiner, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, P. Kortan, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, Gastrointest. Endosc. 58, 591 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X.D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, S. Tang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, B. Qi, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, A. Mok, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 2416 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X.D. Yang, S. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, and B. C. Wilson, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in human gastrointestinal tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. (to be published).

Gordon, M. L.

V. X.D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, S. Tang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, B. Qi, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, A. Mok, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 2416 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tang, M. L. Gordon, V. X.D. Yang, M. E. Faughnan, M. Cirocco, B. Qi, E. Seng-Yue, G. Gardiner, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, P. Kortan, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, Gastrointest. Endosc. 58, 591 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X.D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, J. Pekar, S. Lo, E. Seng-Yue, A. Mok, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 794 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X.D. Yang, S. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, and B. C. Wilson, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in human gastrointestinal tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. (to be published).

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haber, G.

V. X.D. Yang, S. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, and B. C. Wilson, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in human gastrointestinal tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. (to be published).

Haber, G. B.

S. Tang, M. L. Gordon, V. X.D. Yang, M. E. Faughnan, M. Cirocco, B. Qi, E. Seng-Yue, G. Gardiner, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, P. Kortan, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, Gastrointest. Endosc. 58, 591 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Kandel, G.

S. Tang, M. L. Gordon, V. X.D. Yang, M. E. Faughnan, M. Cirocco, B. Qi, E. Seng-Yue, G. Gardiner, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, P. Kortan, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, Gastrointest. Endosc. 58, 591 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X.D. Yang, S. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, and B. C. Wilson, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in human gastrointestinal tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. (to be published).

Ko, T.

Kortan, P.

S. Tang, M. L. Gordon, V. X.D. Yang, M. E. Faughnan, M. Cirocco, B. Qi, E. Seng-Yue, G. Gardiner, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, P. Kortan, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, Gastrointest. Endosc. 58, 591 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X.D. Yang, S. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, and B. C. Wilson, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in human gastrointestinal tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. (to be published).

Kulkarni, M. D.

Li, X.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, S.

Luo, W.

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 84,85 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcon, N. E.

V. X.D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, S. Tang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, B. Qi, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, A. Mok, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 2416 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tang, M. L. Gordon, V. X.D. Yang, M. E. Faughnan, M. Cirocco, B. Qi, E. Seng-Yue, G. Gardiner, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, P. Kortan, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, Gastrointest. Endosc. 58, 591 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marks, D. L.

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 84,85 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

Mok, A.

Nassif, N.

Nelson, J. S.

Park, B. H.

Pekar, J.

Pierce, M. C.

Pitris, C.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, B.

V. X.D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, J. Pekar, S. Lo, E. Seng-Yue, A. Mok, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 794 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tang, M. L. Gordon, V. X.D. Yang, M. E. Faughnan, M. Cirocco, B. Qi, E. Seng-Yue, G. Gardiner, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, P. Kortan, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, Gastrointest. Endosc. 58, 591 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X.D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, S. Tang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, B. Qi, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, A. Mok, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 2416 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X.D. Yang, S. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, and B. C. Wilson, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in human gastrointestinal tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. (to be published).

Rollins, A. M.

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 4251, 156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 25, 1448 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saxer, C.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seng-Yue, E.

Shen, Q.

Shishkov, M.

M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, OSA Biomedical Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America2004), paper SE5.

Singletary, K. W.

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 84,85 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, S.

V. X.D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, S. Tang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, B. Qi, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, A. Mok, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 2416 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tang, M. L. Gordon, V. X.D. Yang, M. E. Faughnan, M. Cirocco, B. Qi, E. Seng-Yue, G. Gardiner, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, P. Kortan, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, Gastrointest. Endosc. 58, 591 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X.D. Yang, S. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, and B. C. Wilson, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in human gastrointestinal tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. (to be published).

Tearney, G. J.

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, Opt. Express 11, 3490 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, OSA Biomedical Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America2004), paper SE5.

Vitkin, I. A.

V. X.D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, S. Tang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, B. Qi, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, A. Mok, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 2416 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X.D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, J. Pekar, S. Lo, E. Seng-Yue, A. Mok, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 794 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tang, M. L. Gordon, V. X.D. Yang, M. E. Faughnan, M. Cirocco, B. Qi, E. Seng-Yue, G. Gardiner, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, P. Kortan, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, Gastrointest. Endosc. 58, 591 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X.D. Yang, S. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, and B. C. Wilson, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in human gastrointestinal tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. (to be published).

Welch, A. J.

White, B. R.

Wilson, B. C.

V. X.D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, J. Pekar, S. Lo, E. Seng-Yue, A. Mok, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 794 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tang, M. L. Gordon, V. X.D. Yang, M. E. Faughnan, M. Cirocco, B. Qi, E. Seng-Yue, G. Gardiner, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, P. Kortan, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, Gastrointest. Endosc. 58, 591 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X.D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, S. Tang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, B. Qi, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, A. Mok, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 2416 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X.D. Yang, S. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, and B. C. Wilson, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in human gastrointestinal tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. (to be published).

Xiang, S.

Xiang, S. H.

Yang, V. X.D.

S. Tang, M. L. Gordon, V. X.D. Yang, M. E. Faughnan, M. Cirocco, B. Qi, E. Seng-Yue, G. Gardiner, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, P. Kortan, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, Gastrointest. Endosc. 58, 591 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X.D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, S. Tang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, B. Qi, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, A. Mok, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 2416 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X.D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, J. Pekar, S. Lo, E. Seng-Yue, A. Mok, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, Opt. Express 11, 794 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X.D. Yang, S. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, and B. C. Wilson, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in human gastrointestinal tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. (to be published).

Yazdanfar, S.

Zhao, Y.

Zhao, Y. H.

Breast Cancer Res. Treat.

S. A. Boppart, W. Luo, D. L. Marks, and K. W. Singletary, Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 84,85 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc.

S. Tang, M. L. Gordon, V. X.D. Yang, M. E. Faughnan, M. Cirocco, B. Qi, E. Seng-Yue, G. Gardiner, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, P. Kortan, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, Gastrointest. Endosc. 58, 591 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Proc. SPIE 4251, 156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

V. X.D. Yang, S. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, and B. C. Wilson, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in human gastrointestinal tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. (to be published).

M. Shishkov, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, OSA Biomedical Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America2004), paper SE5.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematics of the US- or CT-guided IS-DOCT and two different imaging needle designs. (b) The beam from a SM fiber is focused and deflected by a GRIN lens with three polished surfaces. (c) Simplified design with a polished ball-lensed fiber. Both designs use an echogenic needle with an optical window.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Scanning electron micrograph of the polished ball-lensed fiber tip. (b) Beam profile at the focal spot of the polished ball lens. The asymmetry along the x axis is likely caused by the nonspherical shape of the ball lens ( scale bar = 40 μ m ) . This is illustrated in (c), where the effective radii of curvature at the selected lens surface are different in the x and y directions because of the teardrop shape. The effective aperture of the lens can be changed by varying D. The fiber tip slides inside the needle with a flat optical window (inset).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

In vivo demonstration of IS-DOCT: (a) Needle probe inserted in the thigh of an anesthetized rat. (b) Fluoroscopy showing the needle position (arrow) with relation to the femur (F) and knee joint (KJ). Another needle tip ( * ) marks the surface of the skin, showing that the needle is 15 mm into the tissue ( scale bar = 10 mm ) . (c) IS-DOCT image of an artery–vein pair, likely the femoral profunda of the rat. The flow velocity in the artery is higher, as shown by the aliasing effect. (d) Venous flow could be obliterated by compressing the vessel. (e) Smaller blood vessels (arrows, diameter of 100 μ m ) were detected in the rat gluteal muscle. (f) In rat abdomen, both small and large blood vessels were detected. Because of the large velocity differences in these vessels, the larger vessels are shown with a velocity variance color scale, and the smaller vessels are shown with a Doppler shift color scale (green window). The imaging depth was reduced beneath large blood vessels, likely due to blood attenuation of the signal. The IS-DOCT image dimensions are 2.5 mm × 1.5 mm .

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