Abstract

We report the first direct measurements, to our knowledge, of optical signal path delay fluctuations caused by optical turbulence in the atmosphere. The experiments were based on satellite laser ranging. Our initial motivation was to identify all the random error contributors in satellite laser ranging. We measured and identified the random path fluctuations caused by the atmosphere in the range of units of picoseconds. An appropriate fluctuation model was developed.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. GLAD User’s Guide version 4.5 (Applied Optics Research, http://www.aor.com).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. Beaumont, C. Aime, E. Aristidi, and H. Lanteri, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 15 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Sarazin and F. Roddier, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 227, 294 (1990).
  9. M. Sarazin and A. Tokovinin, in Proceedings of the Conference Beyond Conventional Adaptive Optics, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and N. Hubin, eds. (European Southern Observatory, 2002), p. 321.

1997 (2)

H. Beaumont, C. Aime, E. Aristidi, and H. Lanteri, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 15 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Kirchner, F. Koidl, J. Blazej, K. Hamal, and I. Prochazka, Proc. SPIE 3218, 106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. Agabi, J. Borgnino, F. Martin, A. Tokovinin, and A. Ziad, Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. 109, 557 (1995).

1990 (1)

M. Sarazin and F. Roddier, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 227, 294 (1990).

1988 (1)

1976 (1)

Agabi, A.

A. Agabi, J. Borgnino, F. Martin, A. Tokovinin, and A. Ziad, Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. 109, 557 (1995).

Aime, C.

H. Beaumont, C. Aime, E. Aristidi, and H. Lanteri, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 15 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aristidi, E.

H. Beaumont, C. Aime, E. Aristidi, and H. Lanteri, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 15 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Beaumont, H.

H. Beaumont, C. Aime, E. Aristidi, and H. Lanteri, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 15 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Blazej, J.

G. Kirchner, F. Koidl, J. Blazej, K. Hamal, and I. Prochazka, Proc. SPIE 3218, 106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Borgnino, J.

A. Agabi, J. Borgnino, F. Martin, A. Tokovinin, and A. Ziad, Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. 109, 557 (1995).

Caccia, J. L.

Churnside, J. H.

D. K. Killinger, J. H. Churnside, and L. S. Rothman, in Handbook of Optics I, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1995), pp. 44.1–44.50.

Coqueugniot, Y.

Coulman, C. E.

Gardner, C. S.

Hamal, K.

G. Kirchner, F. Koidl, J. Blazej, K. Hamal, and I. Prochazka, Proc. SPIE 3218, 106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Killinger, D. K.

D. K. Killinger, J. H. Churnside, and L. S. Rothman, in Handbook of Optics I, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1995), pp. 44.1–44.50.

Kirchner, G.

G. Kirchner, F. Koidl, J. Blazej, K. Hamal, and I. Prochazka, Proc. SPIE 3218, 106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koidl, F.

G. Kirchner, F. Koidl, J. Blazej, K. Hamal, and I. Prochazka, Proc. SPIE 3218, 106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lanteri, H.

H. Beaumont, C. Aime, E. Aristidi, and H. Lanteri, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 15 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Martin, F.

A. Agabi, J. Borgnino, F. Martin, A. Tokovinin, and A. Ziad, Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. 109, 557 (1995).

Prochazka, I.

G. Kirchner, F. Koidl, J. Blazej, K. Hamal, and I. Prochazka, Proc. SPIE 3218, 106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, F.

M. Sarazin and F. Roddier, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 227, 294 (1990).

Rothman, L. S.

D. K. Killinger, J. H. Churnside, and L. S. Rothman, in Handbook of Optics I, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1995), pp. 44.1–44.50.

Sarazin, M.

M. Sarazin and F. Roddier, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 227, 294 (1990).

M. Sarazin and A. Tokovinin, in Proceedings of the Conference Beyond Conventional Adaptive Optics, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and N. Hubin, eds. (European Southern Observatory, 2002), p. 321.

Tokovinin, A.

A. Agabi, J. Borgnino, F. Martin, A. Tokovinin, and A. Ziad, Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. 109, 557 (1995).

M. Sarazin and A. Tokovinin, in Proceedings of the Conference Beyond Conventional Adaptive Optics, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and N. Hubin, eds. (European Southern Observatory, 2002), p. 321.

Vernin, J.

Ziad, A.

A. Agabi, J. Borgnino, F. Martin, A. Tokovinin, and A. Ziad, Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. 109, 557 (1995).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. (1)

M. Sarazin and F. Roddier, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 227, 294 (1990).

Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. (1)

A. Agabi, J. Borgnino, F. Martin, A. Tokovinin, and A. Ziad, Astron. Astrophys., Suppl. Ser. 109, 557 (1995).

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. Kirchner, F. Koidl, J. Blazej, K. Hamal, and I. Prochazka, Proc. SPIE 3218, 106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

H. Beaumont, C. Aime, E. Aristidi, and H. Lanteri, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 15 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

M. Sarazin and A. Tokovinin, in Proceedings of the Conference Beyond Conventional Adaptive Optics, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and N. Hubin, eds. (European Southern Observatory, 2002), p. 321.

GLAD User’s Guide version 4.5 (Applied Optics Research, http://www.aor.com).

D. K. Killinger, J. H. Churnside, and L. S. Rothman, in Handbook of Optics I, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1995), pp. 44.1–44.50.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experiment scheme.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical ranging data (ground target measurement lasting 85 s, 100,000 points obtained, mean value subtracted). The line is a 200-point moving average.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example of (a) the ranging error distribution and (b) the fluctuation time spectrum in a ground target ranging data set. Overall rms after 2.5 * sigma iterative editing is 0.84 mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured dependence of the turbulence-induced ranging jitter on the seeing (turbulence strength); both were measured on the horizontal path to the ground target. The curves are theoretical dependences described by Eq. (2) (with a correction for different distances of the targets for the ranging and seeing experiments).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Turbulence-induced ranging jitter rms in case of the Envisat satellite and its dependence on the satellite elevation above the horizon.

Equations (2)

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σ 2 = 26.3 L 0 5 3 0 L C n 2 ( ξ ) d ξ ,
σ = a L 0 5 6 λ 1 6 FWHM 5 6 ,

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