Abstract

We report on a frequency comparison of frequency-stabilized lasers located in remote laboratories resting on different foundations. By locating the lasers in this way correlated frequency excursions of the lasers are suppressed to a high degree. The beat signal between them shows a linewidth at the hertz level for averaging times of 1 s. The optical link is established by a 100 m single-mode optical fiber where the frequency noise induced by the fiber is reduced to the level of a few tens of millihertz. One laser is stabilized onto a Fabry–Perot resonator with a long-term precision of 25 mHz (fractional frequency instability, σy=1.2×1016), the highest lock fidelity obtained so far to our knowledge.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, G. Wilpers, T. Binnewies, F. Riehle, J. Helmcke, Ch. Lisdat, and E. Tiemann, in Laser Spectroscopy, P. Hannaford, A. Sidorov, H. Bachor, and K. Baldwin, eds. (World Scientific, 2004), p. 37.
  3. Chr. Tamm, T. Schneider, and E. Peik, in Laser Spectroscopy, P. Hannaford, A. Sidorov, H. Bachor, and K. Baldwin, eds. (World Scientific, 2004), p. 40.
  4. A. Yu. Nevsky, M. Eichenseer, J. von Zanthier, and H. Walther, Opt. Commun. 210, 91 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Eichenseer, A. Yu. Nevsky, Ch. Schwedes, J. von Zanthier, and H. Walther, J. Phys. B 36, 553 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. St. A. Webster, M. Oxborrow, and P. Gill, Opt. Lett. 29, 1497 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. Peik and S. Karshenboim, eds., Astrophysics, Clocks and Fundamental Constants, Vol. 648 of Springer Lecture Notes in Physics (Springer-Verlag, 2004).
  8. E. Coccia, G. Pizzela, and F. Ronga, eds., Gravitational Wave Experiments (World Scientific, 1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Th. Udem, A. Huber, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Prevedelli, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2646 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. N. Luiten, ed., Frequency Measurement and Control, Vol. 79 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer, 2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Gill, ed., Proceedings of the 6th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology (World Scientific, 2002).
  12. Ch. Salomon, D. Hils, and J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1576 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Day, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Hils and J. L. Hall, in Proceedings of the 4th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, A. De Marchi, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1989), p. 162.
  15. Th. Becker, J. v. Zanthier, A. Yu. Nevsky, Ch. Schwedes, M. N. Skvortsov, H. Walther, and E. Peik, Phys. Rev. A 63, 051802 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. von Zanthier, Th. Becker, M. Eichenseer, A. Yu. Nevsky, Ch. Schwedes, E. Peik, H. Walther, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, P. V. Pokasov, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, Opt. Lett. 25, 1729 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. I. Freitag, R. Henking, A. Tünnermann, and H. Welling, Opt. Lett. 20, 2499 (1995); the system described is available from InnoLight GmbH (www.innolight.de).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. V. Okhapkin, M. N. Skvortsov, A. M. Belkin, and S. N. Bagayev, Opt. Commun. 194, 207 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. W.P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Eichenseer, “Aufbau und Charakterisierung eines hochstabilien Nd:YAG Lasers für ein Indium Frequenznormal,” Ph.D. dissertation (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München, 2003).
  21. The system described is available from HWL Scientific Instruments GmbH (www.hwlscientific.com).
  22. L.-S. Ma, P. Jungner, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, Opt. Lett. 19, 1777 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

M. Eichenseer, A. Yu. Nevsky, Ch. Schwedes, J. von Zanthier, and H. Walther, J. Phys. B 36, 553 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. Yu. Nevsky, M. Eichenseer, J. von Zanthier, and H. Walther, Opt. Commun. 210, 91 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

Th. Becker, J. v. Zanthier, A. Yu. Nevsky, Ch. Schwedes, M. N. Skvortsov, H. Walther, and E. Peik, Phys. Rev. A 63, 051802 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Okhapkin, M. N. Skvortsov, A. M. Belkin, and S. N. Bagayev, Opt. Commun. 194, 207 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Th. Udem, A. Huber, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Prevedelli, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

T. Day, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1983 (1)

R. W.P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bagayev, S. N.

Becker, Th.

Belkin, A. M.

M. V. Okhapkin, M. N. Skvortsov, A. M. Belkin, and S. N. Bagayev, Opt. Commun. 194, 207 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J. C.

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Binnewies, T.

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, G. Wilpers, T. Binnewies, F. Riehle, J. Helmcke, Ch. Lisdat, and E. Tiemann, in Laser Spectroscopy, P. Hannaford, A. Sidorov, H. Bachor, and K. Baldwin, eds. (World Scientific, 2004), p. 37.

Byer, R. L.

T. Day, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, F. C.

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Day, T.

T. Day, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Degenhardt, C.

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, G. Wilpers, T. Binnewies, F. Riehle, J. Helmcke, Ch. Lisdat, and E. Tiemann, in Laser Spectroscopy, P. Hannaford, A. Sidorov, H. Bachor, and K. Baldwin, eds. (World Scientific, 2004), p. 37.

Drever, R. W.P.

R. W.P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Eichenseer, M.

M. Eichenseer, A. Yu. Nevsky, Ch. Schwedes, J. von Zanthier, and H. Walther, J. Phys. B 36, 553 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Yu. Nevsky, M. Eichenseer, J. von Zanthier, and H. Walther, Opt. Commun. 210, 91 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. von Zanthier, Th. Becker, M. Eichenseer, A. Yu. Nevsky, Ch. Schwedes, E. Peik, H. Walther, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, P. V. Pokasov, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, Opt. Lett. 25, 1729 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Eichenseer, “Aufbau und Charakterisierung eines hochstabilien Nd:YAG Lasers für ein Indium Frequenznormal,” Ph.D. dissertation (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München, 2003).

Ford, G. M.

R. W.P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Freitag, I.

Gill, P.

Gross, B.

Th. Udem, A. Huber, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Prevedelli, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gustafson, E. K.

T. Day, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

L.-S. Ma, P. Jungner, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, Opt. Lett. 19, 1777 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ch. Salomon, D. Hils, and J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1576 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. W.P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. Hils and J. L. Hall, in Proceedings of the 4th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, A. De Marchi, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1989), p. 162.

Hänsch, T. W.

Helmcke, J.

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, G. Wilpers, T. Binnewies, F. Riehle, J. Helmcke, Ch. Lisdat, and E. Tiemann, in Laser Spectroscopy, P. Hannaford, A. Sidorov, H. Bachor, and K. Baldwin, eds. (World Scientific, 2004), p. 37.

Henking, R.

Hils, D.

Ch. Salomon, D. Hils, and J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1576 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Hils and J. L. Hall, in Proceedings of the 4th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, A. De Marchi, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1989), p. 162.

Holzwarth, R.

Hough, J.

R. W.P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Huber, A.

Th. Udem, A. Huber, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Prevedelli, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Itano, W. M.

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jungner, P.

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W.P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lisdat, Ch.

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, G. Wilpers, T. Binnewies, F. Riehle, J. Helmcke, Ch. Lisdat, and E. Tiemann, in Laser Spectroscopy, P. Hannaford, A. Sidorov, H. Bachor, and K. Baldwin, eds. (World Scientific, 2004), p. 37.

Ma, L.-S.

Munley, A. J.

R. W.P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nevsky, A. Yu.

M. Eichenseer, A. Yu. Nevsky, Ch. Schwedes, J. von Zanthier, and H. Walther, J. Phys. B 36, 553 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Yu. Nevsky, M. Eichenseer, J. von Zanthier, and H. Walther, Opt. Commun. 210, 91 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Th. Becker, J. v. Zanthier, A. Yu. Nevsky, Ch. Schwedes, M. N. Skvortsov, H. Walther, and E. Peik, Phys. Rev. A 63, 051802 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. von Zanthier, Th. Becker, M. Eichenseer, A. Yu. Nevsky, Ch. Schwedes, E. Peik, H. Walther, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, P. V. Pokasov, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, Opt. Lett. 25, 1729 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Okhapkin, M. V.

M. V. Okhapkin, M. N. Skvortsov, A. M. Belkin, and S. N. Bagayev, Opt. Commun. 194, 207 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oxborrow, M.

Peik, E.

Th. Becker, J. v. Zanthier, A. Yu. Nevsky, Ch. Schwedes, M. N. Skvortsov, H. Walther, and E. Peik, Phys. Rev. A 63, 051802 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. von Zanthier, Th. Becker, M. Eichenseer, A. Yu. Nevsky, Ch. Schwedes, E. Peik, H. Walther, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, P. V. Pokasov, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, Opt. Lett. 25, 1729 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chr. Tamm, T. Schneider, and E. Peik, in Laser Spectroscopy, P. Hannaford, A. Sidorov, H. Bachor, and K. Baldwin, eds. (World Scientific, 2004), p. 40.

Pokasov, P. V.

Prevedelli, M.

Th. Udem, A. Huber, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Prevedelli, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reichert, J.

Riehle, F.

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, G. Wilpers, T. Binnewies, F. Riehle, J. Helmcke, Ch. Lisdat, and E. Tiemann, in Laser Spectroscopy, P. Hannaford, A. Sidorov, H. Bachor, and K. Baldwin, eds. (World Scientific, 2004), p. 37.

Salomon, Ch.

Schneider, T.

Chr. Tamm, T. Schneider, and E. Peik, in Laser Spectroscopy, P. Hannaford, A. Sidorov, H. Bachor, and K. Baldwin, eds. (World Scientific, 2004), p. 40.

Schwedes, Ch.

M. Eichenseer, A. Yu. Nevsky, Ch. Schwedes, J. von Zanthier, and H. Walther, J. Phys. B 36, 553 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Th. Becker, J. v. Zanthier, A. Yu. Nevsky, Ch. Schwedes, M. N. Skvortsov, H. Walther, and E. Peik, Phys. Rev. A 63, 051802 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. von Zanthier, Th. Becker, M. Eichenseer, A. Yu. Nevsky, Ch. Schwedes, E. Peik, H. Walther, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, P. V. Pokasov, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, Opt. Lett. 25, 1729 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Skvortsov, M. N.

M. V. Okhapkin, M. N. Skvortsov, A. M. Belkin, and S. N. Bagayev, Opt. Commun. 194, 207 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Th. Becker, J. v. Zanthier, A. Yu. Nevsky, Ch. Schwedes, M. N. Skvortsov, H. Walther, and E. Peik, Phys. Rev. A 63, 051802 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. von Zanthier, Th. Becker, M. Eichenseer, A. Yu. Nevsky, Ch. Schwedes, E. Peik, H. Walther, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, P. V. Pokasov, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, Opt. Lett. 25, 1729 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sterr, U.

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, G. Wilpers, T. Binnewies, F. Riehle, J. Helmcke, Ch. Lisdat, and E. Tiemann, in Laser Spectroscopy, P. Hannaford, A. Sidorov, H. Bachor, and K. Baldwin, eds. (World Scientific, 2004), p. 37.

Stoehr, H.

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, G. Wilpers, T. Binnewies, F. Riehle, J. Helmcke, Ch. Lisdat, and E. Tiemann, in Laser Spectroscopy, P. Hannaford, A. Sidorov, H. Bachor, and K. Baldwin, eds. (World Scientific, 2004), p. 37.

Tamm, Chr.

Chr. Tamm, T. Schneider, and E. Peik, in Laser Spectroscopy, P. Hannaford, A. Sidorov, H. Bachor, and K. Baldwin, eds. (World Scientific, 2004), p. 40.

Tiemann, E.

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, G. Wilpers, T. Binnewies, F. Riehle, J. Helmcke, Ch. Lisdat, and E. Tiemann, in Laser Spectroscopy, P. Hannaford, A. Sidorov, H. Bachor, and K. Baldwin, eds. (World Scientific, 2004), p. 37.

Tünnermann, A.

Udem, Th.

von Zanthier, J.

M. Eichenseer, A. Yu. Nevsky, Ch. Schwedes, J. von Zanthier, and H. Walther, J. Phys. B 36, 553 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Yu. Nevsky, M. Eichenseer, J. von Zanthier, and H. Walther, Opt. Commun. 210, 91 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. von Zanthier, Th. Becker, M. Eichenseer, A. Yu. Nevsky, Ch. Schwedes, E. Peik, H. Walther, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, P. V. Pokasov, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, Opt. Lett. 25, 1729 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Walther, H.

M. Eichenseer, A. Yu. Nevsky, Ch. Schwedes, J. von Zanthier, and H. Walther, J. Phys. B 36, 553 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Yu. Nevsky, M. Eichenseer, J. von Zanthier, and H. Walther, Opt. Commun. 210, 91 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Th. Becker, J. v. Zanthier, A. Yu. Nevsky, Ch. Schwedes, M. N. Skvortsov, H. Walther, and E. Peik, Phys. Rev. A 63, 051802 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. von Zanthier, Th. Becker, M. Eichenseer, A. Yu. Nevsky, Ch. Schwedes, E. Peik, H. Walther, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, P. V. Pokasov, M. N. Skvortsov, and S. N. Bagayev, Opt. Lett. 25, 1729 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ward, H.

R. W.P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Webster, St. A.

Weitz, M.

Th. Udem, A. Huber, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Prevedelli, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Welling, H.

Wilpers, G.

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, G. Wilpers, T. Binnewies, F. Riehle, J. Helmcke, Ch. Lisdat, and E. Tiemann, in Laser Spectroscopy, P. Hannaford, A. Sidorov, H. Bachor, and K. Baldwin, eds. (World Scientific, 2004), p. 37.

Ye, J.

Young, B. C.

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zanthier, J. v.

Th. Becker, J. v. Zanthier, A. Yu. Nevsky, Ch. Schwedes, M. N. Skvortsov, H. Walther, and E. Peik, Phys. Rev. A 63, 051802 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. W.P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Day, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. B (1)

M. Eichenseer, A. Yu. Nevsky, Ch. Schwedes, J. von Zanthier, and H. Walther, J. Phys. B 36, 553 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

A. Yu. Nevsky, M. Eichenseer, J. von Zanthier, and H. Walther, Opt. Commun. 210, 91 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Okhapkin, M. N. Skvortsov, A. M. Belkin, and S. N. Bagayev, Opt. Commun. 194, 207 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

Th. Becker, J. v. Zanthier, A. Yu. Nevsky, Ch. Schwedes, M. N. Skvortsov, H. Walther, and E. Peik, Phys. Rev. A 63, 051802 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Th. Udem, A. Huber, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Prevedelli, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

A. N. Luiten, ed., Frequency Measurement and Control, Vol. 79 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer, 2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Gill, ed., Proceedings of the 6th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology (World Scientific, 2002).

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, G. Wilpers, T. Binnewies, F. Riehle, J. Helmcke, Ch. Lisdat, and E. Tiemann, in Laser Spectroscopy, P. Hannaford, A. Sidorov, H. Bachor, and K. Baldwin, eds. (World Scientific, 2004), p. 37.

Chr. Tamm, T. Schneider, and E. Peik, in Laser Spectroscopy, P. Hannaford, A. Sidorov, H. Bachor, and K. Baldwin, eds. (World Scientific, 2004), p. 40.

E. Peik and S. Karshenboim, eds., Astrophysics, Clocks and Fundamental Constants, Vol. 648 of Springer Lecture Notes in Physics (Springer-Verlag, 2004).

E. Coccia, G. Pizzela, and F. Ronga, eds., Gravitational Wave Experiments (World Scientific, 1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Hils and J. L. Hall, in Proceedings of the 4th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, A. De Marchi, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1989), p. 162.

M. Eichenseer, “Aufbau und Charakterisierung eines hochstabilien Nd:YAG Lasers für ein Indium Frequenznormal,” Ph.D. dissertation (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München, 2003).

The system described is available from HWL Scientific Instruments GmbH (www.hwlscientific.com).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Beat note of two laser beams stabilized onto one ULE reference resonator for an averaging time τ = 128 s (FFT resolution, 8 mHz). The linewidth of the Lorentzian fit is 34 mHz. (b) Root Allan variance of the beat signal (error bars indicated by vertical lines).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Frequency stabilization scheme used for the 100 m optical fiber: part. M, partially reflecting mirror; BS, beam splitter; PD, photodiode. (b) Closed-loop beat signal of the incoming and retroreflected laser beams for τ = 128 s (FFT resolution, 8 mHz).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Common-mode-free beat note between two frequency-stabilized lasers, each independently locked onto a reference resonator residing in a laboratory with a separate foundation. (b) Beat note between two laser beams, each independently stabilized onto one ULE reference cavity.

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