Abstract

A new technique is presented for measuring the spectral broadening of light that has been multiply scattered from scatterers in motion. In our method the scattered light is detected by a heterodyne receiver that uses a CCD as a multipixel detector. We obtain the frequency spectrum of the scattered light by sweeping the heterodyne local oscillator frequency. Our detection scheme combines a high optical etendue (product of the surface by the detection solid angle) with an optimal detection of the scattered photons (shot noise). Using this technique, we measure, in vivo, the frequency spectrum of the light scattered through the breast of a female volunteer.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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2002 (1)

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1999 (1)

1997 (2)

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1994 (1)

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

1981 (1)

A. Fercher and J. Briers, Opt. Commun. 37, 326 (1981).
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[CrossRef]

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N. Takai, T. Iwai, T. Ushizaka, and T. Asakura, Opt. Commun. 30, 287 (1979).
[CrossRef]

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Anisimov, M. A.

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Brown, R. G. W.

Collot, L.

de Mul, F.

Fercher, A.

A. Fercher and J. Briers, Opt. Commun. 37, 326 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Jacques, S.

Jüptner, W.

Lebec, M.

LeClerc, F.

Lev, A.

Lévêque, S.

Meyer, W. V.

Saint-Jalmes, H.

Schnars, U.

Serov, A.

Sfez, B.

Smart, A. E.

Starukhin, P.

Steenbergen, W.

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N. Takai, T. Iwai, T. Ushizaka, and T. Asakura, Opt. Commun. 30, 287 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Tuchin, V.

Ulyanov, S.

Ushizaka, T.

N. Takai, T. Iwai, T. Ushizaka, and T. Asakura, Opt. Commun. 30, 287 (1979).
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Webster, S.

J. Briers and S. Webster, Opt. Commun. 116, 36 (1995).
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Yamaguchi, I.

Yoshimura, T.

Zhang, T.

Zhao, X.

Appl. Opt. (6)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Opt. Commun. (4)

A. Fercher and J. Briers, Opt. Commun. 37, 326 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Briers and S. Webster, Opt. Commun. 116, 36 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. Takai, T. Iwai, T. Ushizaka, and T. Asakura, Opt. Commun. 30, 287 (1979).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (6)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: MM, adjustable mirror; M’s, mirrors; L, short focal lens; A, rectangular aperture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Aperture-reconstructed image by a 1024 × 256 fast Fourier transform: The 1280 × 256 CCD pixels have been truncated to 1024 × 256 . The main beam is diffused by (a) a PVA sample and (b) a hand.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sum S ( x ) over the y axis of the images of Fig. 2 for the PVA sample (curve a) and the hand (curve b). The horizontal scale is pixels in the 1024 × 256 fast Fourier transform calculation grid (512 correspond to the zeroth spatial frequency).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sum S ( x ) for the hand with a LO frequency offset Δ ν = 0 , 0.1, 0.3, and 1 kHz (c, d, e, and f, respectively). Same horizontal scale as in Fig. 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Curve a, frequency spectrum of the light diffused by the breast ( Δ ν = 0 6 kHz ) ; curve b, zero signal reference ( Δ ν = 10 16 kHz ) .

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