Abstract

We present measurements of the power noise due to optical amplification in a Nd:YAG free-space traveling-wave amplifier as the amplifier transitions from the linear regime into the heavily saturated regime. The quantum noise behavior is demonstrated by saturating the gain of a 100-W class zigzag slab amplifier with a high-power beam and measuring the power noise detected by a single-spatial-mode probe beam traversing the same optical path through the amplifier.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. C. Barish and R. Weiss, Phys. Today 52(10), 44 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. Wiechmann, T. J. Kane, D. Haserot, F. Adams, G. Truong, and J. D. Kmetec, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 432.
  3. W. M. Tulloch, T. S. Rutherford, E. H. Huntington, R. Ewart, C. C. Harb, B. Willke, E. K. Gustafson, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, S. Rowan, and J. Hough, Opt. Lett. 23, 1852 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Desuvivre, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (Wiley, New York, 1994).
  5. K. Shimoda, H. Takahasi, and C. H. Townes, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 12, 687 (1957).
  6. C. W. Helstrom, Probability and Stochastic Processes for Engineers (Macmillan, New York, 1998).
  7. G. Oliver and C. Bendjaballah, Phys. Rev. A 22, 630 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. J. Kane and R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 10, 65 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. Willke, N. Uehara, E. K. Gustafson, R. L. Byer, P. King, S. Seel, and R. L. Savage, Opt. Lett. 23, 1704 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. W.P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kawalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
    [CrossRef]

1999

B. C. Barish and R. Weiss, Phys. Today 52(10), 44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1985

1983

R. W.P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kawalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980

G. Oliver and C. Bendjaballah, Phys. Rev. A 22, 630 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1957

K. Shimoda, H. Takahasi, and C. H. Townes, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 12, 687 (1957).

Adams, F.

W. Wiechmann, T. J. Kane, D. Haserot, F. Adams, G. Truong, and J. D. Kmetec, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 432.

Barish, B. C.

B. C. Barish and R. Weiss, Phys. Today 52(10), 44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bendjaballah, C.

G. Oliver and C. Bendjaballah, Phys. Rev. A 22, 630 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Desuvivre, E.

E. Desuvivre, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (Wiley, New York, 1994).

Drever, R. W.P.

R. W.P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kawalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ewart, R.

Fejer, M. M.

Ford, G. M.

R. W.P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kawalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gustafson, E. K.

Hall, J. L.

R. W.P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kawalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Harb, C. C.

Haserot, D.

W. Wiechmann, T. J. Kane, D. Haserot, F. Adams, G. Truong, and J. D. Kmetec, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 432.

Helstrom, C. W.

C. W. Helstrom, Probability and Stochastic Processes for Engineers (Macmillan, New York, 1998).

Hough, J.

Huntington, E. H.

Kane, T. J.

T. J. Kane and R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 10, 65 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wiechmann, T. J. Kane, D. Haserot, F. Adams, G. Truong, and J. D. Kmetec, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 432.

Kawalski, F. V.

R. W.P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kawalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

King, P.

Kmetec, J. D.

W. Wiechmann, T. J. Kane, D. Haserot, F. Adams, G. Truong, and J. D. Kmetec, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 432.

Munley, A. J.

R. W.P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kawalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, G.

G. Oliver and C. Bendjaballah, Phys. Rev. A 22, 630 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Rowan, S.

Rutherford, T. S.

Savage, R. L.

Seel, S.

Shimoda, K.

K. Shimoda, H. Takahasi, and C. H. Townes, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 12, 687 (1957).

Takahasi, H.

K. Shimoda, H. Takahasi, and C. H. Townes, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 12, 687 (1957).

Townes, C. H.

K. Shimoda, H. Takahasi, and C. H. Townes, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 12, 687 (1957).

Truong, G.

W. Wiechmann, T. J. Kane, D. Haserot, F. Adams, G. Truong, and J. D. Kmetec, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 432.

Tulloch, W. M.

Uehara, N.

Ward, H.

R. W.P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kawalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, R.

B. C. Barish and R. Weiss, Phys. Today 52(10), 44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wiechmann, W.

W. Wiechmann, T. J. Kane, D. Haserot, F. Adams, G. Truong, and J. D. Kmetec, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 432.

Willke, B.

Appl. Phys. B

R. W.P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kawalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.

K. Shimoda, H. Takahasi, and C. H. Townes, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 12, 687 (1957).

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

G. Oliver and C. Bendjaballah, Phys. Rev. A 22, 630 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today

B. C. Barish and R. Weiss, Phys. Today 52(10), 44 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. Wiechmann, T. J. Kane, D. Haserot, F. Adams, G. Truong, and J. D. Kmetec, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 432.

C. W. Helstrom, Probability and Stochastic Processes for Engineers (Macmillan, New York, 1998).

E. Desuvivre, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (Wiley, New York, 1994).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Layout of the quantum noise measuring system of a Nd:YAG free-space saturated amplifier. The orthogonally polarized probe and high-power saturating beams are locked to identical Fabry–Perot cavities, overlapped, and sent through an end-pumped Nd:YAG slab amplifier. The beams are then separated and the probe is sent to a balanced detection system to measure quantum noise.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plot of quantum noise versus power gain for different input intensities of the high-power saturating beam. The theory curve is a plot of the quantum noise Eq. (2).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Linear scaling of quantum noise of an unsaturated amplifier as the pump power is increased. (b) Quantum noise curves as the gain is saturated down with a high-power beam overlapping the probe beam. The dashed curve shows the extraction efficiency of the power amplifier as it transitions to deep saturation.

Equations (3)

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d P n d x = a [ n P n 1 ( n + 1 ) P n ] + b [ ( n + 1 ) P n + 1 n P n ] ,
σ d ² = σ shot ² [ 1 + 2 f sp η ( G 1 ) ] ,
σ d ² = σ shot ² [ 1 + 2 f sp η ( G sat 1 ) ] .

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