Abstract

We report on a novel and efficient source of polarization squeezing that uses a single pass through an optical fiber. Using the fiber’s two orthogonal polarization axes produces two identical squeezed beams. Combining these in a Stokes measurement generates polarization squeezing of up to 5.1±0.3dB. Furthermore, this scheme enables us to directly measure, for both polarizations, the noise of any given quadrature.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. L. Braunstein and A. K. Pati, eds., Quantum Information Theory with Continuous Variables (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2002).
  2. A. S. Chirkin, A. A. Orlov, and D. Yu. Paraschuk, Quantum Electron. 23, 870 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. P. Bowen, R. Schnabel, H.-A. Bachor, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093601 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Heersink, T. Gaber, S. Lorenz, O. Glöckl, N. Korolkova, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. A 68, 013815 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Josse, A. Dantan, L. Vernac, A. Bramati, M. Pinard, and E. Giacobino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 103601 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Korolkova, G. Leuchs, R. Loudon, T. C. Ralph, and Ch. Silberhorn, Phys. Rev. A 65, 052306 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Hald, J. L. Sorensen, C. Schori, and E. S. Polzik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1319 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutter, R. G. DeVoe, and D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Kitagawa and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A 34, 3974 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Schmitt, J. Ficker, M. Wolff, F. König, A. Sizmann, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2446 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Krylov and K. Bergman, Opt. Lett. 23, 390 (1998).
  13. M. Fiorentino, J. E. Sharping, P. Kumar, D. Levandovsky, and M. Vasilyev, Phys. Rev. A 64, 031801(R) (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Bergman and H. A. Haus, Opt. Lett. 16, 663 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Rosenbluh and R. M. Shelby, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 153 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. D. Drummond and J. F. Corney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 139152 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Korn, O. Glöckl, S. Lorenz, Ch. Marquardt, U. L. Andersen, and G. Leuchs, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), p. 92.

2003 (2)

J. Heersink, T. Gaber, S. Lorenz, O. Glöckl, N. Korolkova, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. A 68, 013815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Josse, A. Dantan, L. Vernac, A. Bramati, M. Pinard, and E. Giacobino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 103601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

N. Korolkova, G. Leuchs, R. Loudon, T. C. Ralph, and Ch. Silberhorn, Phys. Rev. A 65, 052306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Bowen, R. Schnabel, H.-A. Bachor, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. Fiorentino, J. E. Sharping, P. Kumar, D. Levandovsky, and M. Vasilyev, Phys. Rev. A 64, 031801(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Drummond and J. F. Corney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 139152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Hald, J. L. Sorensen, C. Schori, and E. S. Polzik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

S. Schmitt, J. Ficker, M. Wolff, F. König, A. Sizmann, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Krylov and K. Bergman, Opt. Lett. 23, 390 (1998).

1993 (1)

A. S. Chirkin, A. A. Orlov, and D. Yu. Paraschuk, Quantum Electron. 23, 870 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

K. Bergman and H. A. Haus, Opt. Lett. 16, 663 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rosenbluh and R. M. Shelby, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 153 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (2)

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutter, R. G. DeVoe, and D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kitagawa and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A 34, 3974 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersen, U. L.

A. Korn, O. Glöckl, S. Lorenz, Ch. Marquardt, U. L. Andersen, and G. Leuchs, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), p. 92.

Bachor, H.-A.

W. P. Bowen, R. Schnabel, H.-A. Bachor, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

D. Krylov and K. Bergman, Opt. Lett. 23, 390 (1998).

K. Bergman and H. A. Haus, Opt. Lett. 16, 663 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowen, W. P.

W. P. Bowen, R. Schnabel, H.-A. Bachor, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bramati, A.

V. Josse, A. Dantan, L. Vernac, A. Bramati, M. Pinard, and E. Giacobino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 103601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chirkin, A. S.

A. S. Chirkin, A. A. Orlov, and D. Yu. Paraschuk, Quantum Electron. 23, 870 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Corney, J. F.

P. D. Drummond and J. F. Corney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 139152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dantan, A.

V. Josse, A. Dantan, L. Vernac, A. Bramati, M. Pinard, and E. Giacobino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 103601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

DeVoe, R. G.

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutter, R. G. DeVoe, and D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drummond, P. D.

P. D. Drummond and J. F. Corney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 139152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ficker, J.

S. Schmitt, J. Ficker, M. Wolff, F. König, A. Sizmann, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fiorentino, M.

M. Fiorentino, J. E. Sharping, P. Kumar, D. Levandovsky, and M. Vasilyev, Phys. Rev. A 64, 031801(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gaber, T.

J. Heersink, T. Gaber, S. Lorenz, O. Glöckl, N. Korolkova, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. A 68, 013815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Giacobino, E.

V. Josse, A. Dantan, L. Vernac, A. Bramati, M. Pinard, and E. Giacobino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 103601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Glöckl, O.

J. Heersink, T. Gaber, S. Lorenz, O. Glöckl, N. Korolkova, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. A 68, 013815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Korn, O. Glöckl, S. Lorenz, Ch. Marquardt, U. L. Andersen, and G. Leuchs, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), p. 92.

Grangier, P.

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hald, J.

J. Hald, J. L. Sorensen, C. Schori, and E. S. Polzik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

Heersink, J.

J. Heersink, T. Gaber, S. Lorenz, O. Glöckl, N. Korolkova, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. A 68, 013815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Josse, V.

V. Josse, A. Dantan, L. Vernac, A. Bramati, M. Pinard, and E. Giacobino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 103601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kitagawa, M.

M. Kitagawa and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A 34, 3974 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

König, F.

S. Schmitt, J. Ficker, M. Wolff, F. König, A. Sizmann, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Korn, A.

A. Korn, O. Glöckl, S. Lorenz, Ch. Marquardt, U. L. Andersen, and G. Leuchs, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), p. 92.

Korolkova, N.

J. Heersink, T. Gaber, S. Lorenz, O. Glöckl, N. Korolkova, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. A 68, 013815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Korolkova, G. Leuchs, R. Loudon, T. C. Ralph, and Ch. Silberhorn, Phys. Rev. A 65, 052306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krylov, D.

D. Krylov and K. Bergman, Opt. Lett. 23, 390 (1998).

Kumar, P.

M. Fiorentino, J. E. Sharping, P. Kumar, D. Levandovsky, and M. Vasilyev, Phys. Rev. A 64, 031801(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lam, P. K.

W. P. Bowen, R. Schnabel, H.-A. Bachor, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

LaPorta, A.

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leuchs, G.

J. Heersink, T. Gaber, S. Lorenz, O. Glöckl, N. Korolkova, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. A 68, 013815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Korolkova, G. Leuchs, R. Loudon, T. C. Ralph, and Ch. Silberhorn, Phys. Rev. A 65, 052306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Schmitt, J. Ficker, M. Wolff, F. König, A. Sizmann, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Korn, O. Glöckl, S. Lorenz, Ch. Marquardt, U. L. Andersen, and G. Leuchs, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), p. 92.

Levandovsky, D.

M. Fiorentino, J. E. Sharping, P. Kumar, D. Levandovsky, and M. Vasilyev, Phys. Rev. A 64, 031801(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

Levenson, M. D.

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutter, R. G. DeVoe, and D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lorenz, S.

J. Heersink, T. Gaber, S. Lorenz, O. Glöckl, N. Korolkova, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. A 68, 013815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Korn, O. Glöckl, S. Lorenz, Ch. Marquardt, U. L. Andersen, and G. Leuchs, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), p. 92.

Loudon, R.

N. Korolkova, G. Leuchs, R. Loudon, T. C. Ralph, and Ch. Silberhorn, Phys. Rev. A 65, 052306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marquardt, Ch.

A. Korn, O. Glöckl, S. Lorenz, Ch. Marquardt, U. L. Andersen, and G. Leuchs, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), p. 92.

Orlov, A. A.

A. S. Chirkin, A. A. Orlov, and D. Yu. Paraschuk, Quantum Electron. 23, 870 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Paraschuk, D. Yu.

A. S. Chirkin, A. A. Orlov, and D. Yu. Paraschuk, Quantum Electron. 23, 870 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Perlmutter, S. H.

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutter, R. G. DeVoe, and D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pinard, M.

V. Josse, A. Dantan, L. Vernac, A. Bramati, M. Pinard, and E. Giacobino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 103601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Polzik, E. S.

J. Hald, J. L. Sorensen, C. Schori, and E. S. Polzik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ralph, T. C.

N. Korolkova, G. Leuchs, R. Loudon, T. C. Ralph, and Ch. Silberhorn, Phys. Rev. A 65, 052306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rosenbluh, M.

M. Rosenbluh and R. M. Shelby, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 153 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt, S.

S. Schmitt, J. Ficker, M. Wolff, F. König, A. Sizmann, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schnabel, R.

W. P. Bowen, R. Schnabel, H.-A. Bachor, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schori, C.

J. Hald, J. L. Sorensen, C. Schori, and E. S. Polzik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sharping, J. E.

M. Fiorentino, J. E. Sharping, P. Kumar, D. Levandovsky, and M. Vasilyev, Phys. Rev. A 64, 031801(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, R. M.

M. Rosenbluh and R. M. Shelby, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 153 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutter, R. G. DeVoe, and D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silberhorn, Ch.

N. Korolkova, G. Leuchs, R. Loudon, T. C. Ralph, and Ch. Silberhorn, Phys. Rev. A 65, 052306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sizmann, A.

S. Schmitt, J. Ficker, M. Wolff, F. König, A. Sizmann, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorensen, J. L.

J. Hald, J. L. Sorensen, C. Schori, and E. S. Polzik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vasilyev, M.

M. Fiorentino, J. E. Sharping, P. Kumar, D. Levandovsky, and M. Vasilyev, Phys. Rev. A 64, 031801(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vernac, L.

V. Josse, A. Dantan, L. Vernac, A. Bramati, M. Pinard, and E. Giacobino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 103601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Walls, D. F.

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutter, R. G. DeVoe, and D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolff, M.

S. Schmitt, J. Ficker, M. Wolff, F. König, A. Sizmann, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

M. Kitagawa and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A 34, 3974 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yurke, B.

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

P. D. Drummond and J. F. Corney, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 139152 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

K. Bergman and H. A. Haus, Opt. Lett. 16, 663 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Krylov and K. Bergman, Opt. Lett. 23, 390 (1998).

Phys. Rev. A (4)

M. Fiorentino, J. E. Sharping, P. Kumar, D. Levandovsky, and M. Vasilyev, Phys. Rev. A 64, 031801(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Kitagawa and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A 34, 3974 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Heersink, T. Gaber, S. Lorenz, O. Glöckl, N. Korolkova, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. A 68, 013815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Korolkova, G. Leuchs, R. Loudon, T. C. Ralph, and Ch. Silberhorn, Phys. Rev. A 65, 052306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

J. Hald, J. L. Sorensen, C. Schori, and E. S. Polzik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutter, R. G. DeVoe, and D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Josse, A. Dantan, L. Vernac, A. Bramati, M. Pinard, and E. Giacobino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 103601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. P. Bowen, R. Schnabel, H.-A. Bachor, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Schmitt, J. Ficker, M. Wolff, F. König, A. Sizmann, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Rosenbluh and R. M. Shelby, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 153 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quantum Electron. (1)

A. S. Chirkin, A. A. Orlov, and D. Yu. Paraschuk, Quantum Electron. 23, 870 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. L. Braunstein and A. K. Pati, eds., Quantum Information Theory with Continuous Variables (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2002).

A. Korn, O. Glöckl, S. Lorenz, Ch. Marquardt, U. L. Andersen, and G. Leuchs, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), p. 92.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Representation in phase space of (a) the effect of Kerr squeezing on a coherent beam and (b) the state of light exiting the fiber in our setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for efficient polarization squeezing generation. PBS, polarizing beam splitter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Noise versus phase-space rotation angle for rotation of the measurement λ 2 wave plate for a pulse energy of 83.7 pJ , using 13.3 - m 3M FS-PM-7811 fiber (an enlargement of the squeezing region is shown). Inset, schematic of the projection principle for angle θ. Results are corrected for 86.1 ± 0.1 - dBm electronic noise.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results for 13.3 - m 3M FS-PM-7811 fiber as a function of pulse energy: (a) squeezing and excess phase noise, (b) squeezing angle. The energy at which a first-order soliton is generated ( 56 ± 4 pJ ) is shown by the dashed line. Results are corrected for 86.1 ± 0.1 - dBm electronic noise.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S ̂ 0 = a ̂ x a ̂ x + a ̂ y a ̂ y , S ̂ 1 = a ̂ x a ̂ x a ̂ y a ̂ y ,
S ̂ 2 = a ̂ x a ̂ y + a ̂ y a ̂ x , S ̂ 3 = i ( a ̂ y a ̂ x a ̂ x a ̂ y ) .
Δ 2 S ̂ θ S ̂ 3 = α 2 , S ̂ θ = cos θ S ̂ 1 + sin θ S ̂ 2 .
δ S ̂ θ α ( δ X ̂ x , θ δ X ̂ y , θ ) 2 .
i cos 4 Φ S ̂ 1 + sin 4 Φ S ̂ 2 = S ̂ 4 Φ ,

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