Abstract

Dispersion limits performance in many optical systems. In surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors, the sensing area is an optical element in which the dispersion depends on the effective refractive index of the biochemical compounds to be measured. We report a method of compensating for wavelength dispersion in SPR biosensors employing two integrated diffractive optical coupling elements in a polymer substrate. The dispersion compensation is achieved over the whole dynamic measurement range and provides a biosensor more robust to wavelength fluctuations than prism-coupler SPR systems. The concept can readily be employed in other types of sensor measuring refractive-index changes.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2004 (2)

C. Thirstrup, W. Zong, M. Borre, H. Neff, H. C. Pedersen, and G. Holzhuter, Sens. Actuators B 100, 298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Pedersen and C. Thirstrup, Appl. Opt. 43, 1209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

K. Haroud, K. Bohnert, A. Frank, and H. Brändle, Opt. Lett. 27, 897 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Goddard, K. Singh, J. P. Hulme, C. Malins, and R. J. Holmes, Sens. Actuators A 100, 1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

B. J. Eggleton, A. K. Ahuja, K. S. Feder, C. Headley, C. Kerbage, M. D. Mermelstein, J. A. Rogers, P. Steinvurzel, P. S. Westbrook, and R. S. Windeler, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7, 409 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1993 (2)

R. Cush, J. M. Cronin, W. J. Stewart, C. H. Maule, J. O. Molloy, and N. J. Goddard, Biosens. Bioelectron. 8, 347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Liedberg, I. Lundstrom, and E. Stenberg, Sens. Actuators B 11, 63 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ahuja, A. K.

B. J. Eggleton, A. K. Ahuja, K. S. Feder, C. Headley, C. Kerbage, M. D. Mermelstein, J. A. Rogers, P. Steinvurzel, P. S. Westbrook, and R. S. Windeler, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7, 409 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bohnert, K.

Boppart, S. A.

Borre, M.

C. Thirstrup, W. Zong, M. Borre, H. Neff, H. C. Pedersen, and G. Holzhuter, Sens. Actuators B 100, 298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brändle, H.

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cronin, J. M.

R. Cush, J. M. Cronin, W. J. Stewart, C. H. Maule, J. O. Molloy, and N. J. Goddard, Biosens. Bioelectron. 8, 347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cush, R.

R. Cush, J. M. Cronin, W. J. Stewart, C. H. Maule, J. O. Molloy, and N. J. Goddard, Biosens. Bioelectron. 8, 347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Drexler, W.

Eggleton, B. J.

B. J. Eggleton, A. K. Ahuja, K. S. Feder, C. Headley, C. Kerbage, M. D. Mermelstein, J. A. Rogers, P. Steinvurzel, P. S. Westbrook, and R. S. Windeler, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7, 409 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Feder, K. S.

B. J. Eggleton, A. K. Ahuja, K. S. Feder, C. Headley, C. Kerbage, M. D. Mermelstein, J. A. Rogers, P. Steinvurzel, P. S. Westbrook, and R. S. Windeler, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7, 409 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Frank, A.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Giallorenzi, T. G.

Goddard, N. J.

N. J. Goddard, K. Singh, J. P. Hulme, C. Malins, and R. J. Holmes, Sens. Actuators A 100, 1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Cush, J. M. Cronin, W. J. Stewart, C. H. Maule, J. O. Molloy, and N. J. Goddard, Biosens. Bioelectron. 8, 347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Haroud, K.

Headley, C.

B. J. Eggleton, A. K. Ahuja, K. S. Feder, C. Headley, C. Kerbage, M. D. Mermelstein, J. A. Rogers, P. Steinvurzel, P. S. Westbrook, and R. S. Windeler, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7, 409 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, R. J.

N. J. Goddard, K. Singh, J. P. Hulme, C. Malins, and R. J. Holmes, Sens. Actuators A 100, 1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Holzhuter, G.

C. Thirstrup, W. Zong, M. Borre, H. Neff, H. C. Pedersen, and G. Holzhuter, Sens. Actuators B 100, 298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hulme, J. P.

N. J. Goddard, K. Singh, J. P. Hulme, C. Malins, and R. J. Holmes, Sens. Actuators A 100, 1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kerbage, C.

B. J. Eggleton, A. K. Ahuja, K. S. Feder, C. Headley, C. Kerbage, M. D. Mermelstein, J. A. Rogers, P. Steinvurzel, P. S. Westbrook, and R. S. Windeler, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7, 409 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. D.

Liedberg, B.

B. Liedberg, I. Lundstrom, and E. Stenberg, Sens. Actuators B 11, 63 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, Sens. Actuators 3, 79 (1982/1983).
[CrossRef]

Lind, T.

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, Sens. Actuators 3, 79 (1982/1983).
[CrossRef]

Lundstrom, I.

B. Liedberg, I. Lundstrom, and E. Stenberg, Sens. Actuators B 11, 63 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Malins, C.

N. J. Goddard, K. Singh, J. P. Hulme, C. Malins, and R. J. Holmes, Sens. Actuators A 100, 1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maule, C. H.

R. Cush, J. M. Cronin, W. J. Stewart, C. H. Maule, J. O. Molloy, and N. J. Goddard, Biosens. Bioelectron. 8, 347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mermelstein, M. D.

B. J. Eggleton, A. K. Ahuja, K. S. Feder, C. Headley, C. Kerbage, M. D. Mermelstein, J. A. Rogers, P. Steinvurzel, P. S. Westbrook, and R. S. Windeler, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7, 409 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Molloy, J. O.

R. Cush, J. M. Cronin, W. J. Stewart, C. H. Maule, J. O. Molloy, and N. J. Goddard, Biosens. Bioelectron. 8, 347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Morgner, U.

Neff, H.

C. Thirstrup, W. Zong, M. Borre, H. Neff, H. C. Pedersen, and G. Holzhuter, Sens. Actuators B 100, 298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nylander, C.

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, Sens. Actuators 3, 79 (1982/1983).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, H. C.

H. C. Pedersen and C. Thirstrup, Appl. Opt. 43, 1209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Thirstrup, W. Zong, M. Borre, H. Neff, H. C. Pedersen, and G. Holzhuter, Sens. Actuators B 100, 298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pitris, C.

Priest, R. G.

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, Vol. 111 of Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

Rogers, J. A.

B. J. Eggleton, A. K. Ahuja, K. S. Feder, C. Headley, C. Kerbage, M. D. Mermelstein, J. A. Rogers, P. Steinvurzel, P. S. Westbrook, and R. S. Windeler, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7, 409 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Singh, K.

N. J. Goddard, K. Singh, J. P. Hulme, C. Malins, and R. J. Holmes, Sens. Actuators A 100, 1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Steinvurzel, P.

B. J. Eggleton, A. K. Ahuja, K. S. Feder, C. Headley, C. Kerbage, M. D. Mermelstein, J. A. Rogers, P. Steinvurzel, P. S. Westbrook, and R. S. Windeler, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7, 409 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stenberg, E.

B. Liedberg, I. Lundstrom, and E. Stenberg, Sens. Actuators B 11, 63 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. J.

R. Cush, J. M. Cronin, W. J. Stewart, C. H. Maule, J. O. Molloy, and N. J. Goddard, Biosens. Bioelectron. 8, 347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Thirstrup, C.

C. Thirstrup, W. Zong, M. Borre, H. Neff, H. C. Pedersen, and G. Holzhuter, Sens. Actuators B 100, 298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Pedersen and C. Thirstrup, Appl. Opt. 43, 1209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westbrook, P. S.

B. J. Eggleton, A. K. Ahuja, K. S. Feder, C. Headley, C. Kerbage, M. D. Mermelstein, J. A. Rogers, P. Steinvurzel, P. S. Westbrook, and R. S. Windeler, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7, 409 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

B. J. Eggleton, A. K. Ahuja, K. S. Feder, C. Headley, C. Kerbage, M. D. Mermelstein, J. A. Rogers, P. Steinvurzel, P. S. Westbrook, and R. S. Windeler, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7, 409 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zong, W.

C. Thirstrup, W. Zong, M. Borre, H. Neff, H. C. Pedersen, and G. Holzhuter, Sens. Actuators B 100, 298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

R. Cush, J. M. Cronin, W. J. Stewart, C. H. Maule, J. O. Molloy, and N. J. Goddard, Biosens. Bioelectron. 8, 347 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. J. Eggleton, A. K. Ahuja, K. S. Feder, C. Headley, C. Kerbage, M. D. Mermelstein, J. A. Rogers, P. Steinvurzel, P. S. Westbrook, and R. S. Windeler, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7, 409 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators (1)

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, Sens. Actuators 3, 79 (1982/1983).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A (1)

N. J. Goddard, K. Singh, J. P. Hulme, C. Malins, and R. J. Holmes, Sens. Actuators A 100, 1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (2)

B. Liedberg, I. Lundstrom, and E. Stenberg, Sens. Actuators B 11, 63 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Thirstrup, W. Zong, M. Borre, H. Neff, H. C. Pedersen, and G. Holzhuter, Sens. Actuators B 100, 298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

Optical Glass N-BK7 2000 catalog (Schott Optical Glass, Duryea, Pa.).

D. R. Lide, ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 80th ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1999).

Ticona product description, TOPAS thermoplastic olefin polymer of amorphous structure (COC), (Ticona, Summit, N.J., August 2000).

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, Vol. 111 of Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) DOCE-based SPR sensor; (b) prism-coupler SPR system. Inset, schematic of the sensing area comprising a substrate with refractive index n g , a metal film with complex dielectric constant ε m r + i ε m i , and a sensing area with an effective refractive index n s .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dispersion calculated as a function of wavelength for the prism-coupler SPR sensor from Fig. 1(b) (lower set of solid curves); prism-coupler SPR sensor based on an equilateral prism (lower set of dashed curves); and DOCE based SPR sensor from Fig. 1(a) (upper set of solid curves).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured wavelength-induced angular changes for a change in light source wavelength of 3 nm (left ordinate axis) and dispersions (right ordinate axis) for an equilateral prism coupler (open circles) and a dispersion-compensated sensor chip (filled triangles). Solid curves, plots of corresponding calculated dispersions.

Equations (1)

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sin θ res 1 n g [ ε m r n s 2 ( ε m r + n s 2 ) ] 1 2 ,

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