Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a novel ring-cavity-based flat-top birefringent interleaver. A single ring cavity provides the two phase shifts needed, each for a polarization state, to achieve a flat-top spectral passband at the output. Fresnel reflectivities (for s- and p-polarization states) at the prism interface of the ring cavity are employed so that highly accurate thin-film coatings are not needed for the phase shifts. By choosing the appropriate incident angle near the Brewster angle, we can obtain the optimum interface reflectivities for flat passbands and extremely low cross talk. We also present the results of our experimental investigations of a flat-top 25-GHz optical interleaver that uses a novel ring cavity architecture. In a 25-GHz channel spacing application the interleaver exhibits a 0.5-dB passband larger than 0.14 nm (17.5 GHz), a 25-dB stopband greater than 0.14 nm (17.5 GHz), and channel isolation better than 28 dB over the entire C band.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. V. Kartalopoulos, Introduction to DWDM Technology: Data in a Rainbow (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), Chap. 1.
  2. P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, New York, 1988), Chap. 3.
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    [CrossRef]
  4. C. H. Hsieh, R. Wang, Z. Wen, I. McMichael, P. Yeh, C. W. Lee, and W. H. Cheng, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 242 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. H. Hsieh, C. W. Lee, S. Y. Huang, R. Wang, P. Yeh, and W. H. Cheng, Opt. Commun. 237, 285 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. B. Dingel and M. Izutsu, Opt. Lett. 22, 1449 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Zeng, X. G. Ye, J. Chon, and F. Liang, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper ThC4.
  8. M. Kohtoku, S. Oku, Y. Kadota, Y. Shibata, and Y. Yoshikuni, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1174 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Roeloffzen, R. M. Ridder, G. Sengo, K. Worhoff, and A. Driessen, paper P1.20 presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’02), Copenhagen, Denmark, September 8–12, 2002.
  10. M. Oguma, K. Jinguji, T. Kitoh, T. Shibata, and A. Himeno, Electron. Lett. 36, 1299 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, K. Jinguji, T. Shibata, A. Himeno, and Y. Hibino, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 328 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Cao, C. Lin, C. Yang, E. Ning, J. Zhao, and G. Barbarossa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper ThC3.

2004 (1)

C. H. Hsieh, C. W. Lee, S. Y. Huang, R. Wang, P. Yeh, and W. H. Cheng, Opt. Commun. 237, 285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

C. H. Hsieh, R. Wang, Z. Wen, I. McMichael, P. Yeh, C. W. Lee, and W. H. Cheng, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, K. Jinguji, T. Shibata, A. Himeno, and Y. Hibino, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

M. Kohtoku, S. Oku, Y. Kadota, Y. Shibata, and Y. Yoshikuni, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Oguma, K. Jinguji, T. Kitoh, T. Shibata, and A. Himeno, Electron. Lett. 36, 1299 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

Barbarossa, G.

S. Cao, C. Lin, C. Yang, E. Ning, J. Zhao, and G. Barbarossa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper ThC3.

Cao, S.

S. Cao, C. Lin, C. Yang, E. Ning, J. Zhao, and G. Barbarossa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper ThC3.

Cheng, W. H.

C. H. Hsieh, C. W. Lee, S. Y. Huang, R. Wang, P. Yeh, and W. H. Cheng, Opt. Commun. 237, 285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Hsieh, R. Wang, Z. Wen, I. McMichael, P. Yeh, C. W. Lee, and W. H. Cheng, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chon, J.

A. Zeng, X. G. Ye, J. Chon, and F. Liang, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper ThC4.

Dingel, B. B.

Driessen, A.

C. Roeloffzen, R. M. Ridder, G. Sengo, K. Worhoff, and A. Driessen, paper P1.20 presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’02), Copenhagen, Denmark, September 8–12, 2002.

Hibino, Y.

M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, K. Jinguji, T. Shibata, A. Himeno, and Y. Hibino, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Himeno, A.

M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, K. Jinguji, T. Shibata, A. Himeno, and Y. Hibino, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Oguma, K. Jinguji, T. Kitoh, T. Shibata, and A. Himeno, Electron. Lett. 36, 1299 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C. H.

C. H. Hsieh, C. W. Lee, S. Y. Huang, R. Wang, P. Yeh, and W. H. Cheng, Opt. Commun. 237, 285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Hsieh, R. Wang, Z. Wen, I. McMichael, P. Yeh, C. W. Lee, and W. H. Cheng, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. Y.

C. H. Hsieh, C. W. Lee, S. Y. Huang, R. Wang, P. Yeh, and W. H. Cheng, Opt. Commun. 237, 285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Izutsu, M.

Jinguji, K.

M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, K. Jinguji, T. Shibata, A. Himeno, and Y. Hibino, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Oguma, K. Jinguji, T. Kitoh, T. Shibata, and A. Himeno, Electron. Lett. 36, 1299 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kadota, Y.

M. Kohtoku, S. Oku, Y. Kadota, Y. Shibata, and Y. Yoshikuni, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kartalopoulos, S. V.

S. V. Kartalopoulos, Introduction to DWDM Technology: Data in a Rainbow (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), Chap. 1.

Kitoh, T.

M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, K. Jinguji, T. Shibata, A. Himeno, and Y. Hibino, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Oguma, K. Jinguji, T. Kitoh, T. Shibata, and A. Himeno, Electron. Lett. 36, 1299 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kohtoku, M.

M. Kohtoku, S. Oku, Y. Kadota, Y. Shibata, and Y. Yoshikuni, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. W.

C. H. Hsieh, C. W. Lee, S. Y. Huang, R. Wang, P. Yeh, and W. H. Cheng, Opt. Commun. 237, 285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Hsieh, R. Wang, Z. Wen, I. McMichael, P. Yeh, C. W. Lee, and W. H. Cheng, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liang, F.

A. Zeng, X. G. Ye, J. Chon, and F. Liang, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper ThC4.

Lin, C.

S. Cao, C. Lin, C. Yang, E. Ning, J. Zhao, and G. Barbarossa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper ThC3.

McMichael, I.

C. H. Hsieh, R. Wang, Z. Wen, I. McMichael, P. Yeh, C. W. Lee, and W. H. Cheng, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ning, E.

S. Cao, C. Lin, C. Yang, E. Ning, J. Zhao, and G. Barbarossa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper ThC3.

Oguma, M.

M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, K. Jinguji, T. Shibata, A. Himeno, and Y. Hibino, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Oguma, K. Jinguji, T. Kitoh, T. Shibata, and A. Himeno, Electron. Lett. 36, 1299 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Oku, S.

M. Kohtoku, S. Oku, Y. Kadota, Y. Shibata, and Y. Yoshikuni, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ridder, R. M.

C. Roeloffzen, R. M. Ridder, G. Sengo, K. Worhoff, and A. Driessen, paper P1.20 presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’02), Copenhagen, Denmark, September 8–12, 2002.

Roeloffzen, C.

C. Roeloffzen, R. M. Ridder, G. Sengo, K. Worhoff, and A. Driessen, paper P1.20 presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’02), Copenhagen, Denmark, September 8–12, 2002.

Sengo, G.

C. Roeloffzen, R. M. Ridder, G. Sengo, K. Worhoff, and A. Driessen, paper P1.20 presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’02), Copenhagen, Denmark, September 8–12, 2002.

Shibata, T.

M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, K. Jinguji, T. Shibata, A. Himeno, and Y. Hibino, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Oguma, K. Jinguji, T. Kitoh, T. Shibata, and A. Himeno, Electron. Lett. 36, 1299 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, Y.

M. Kohtoku, S. Oku, Y. Kadota, Y. Shibata, and Y. Yoshikuni, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R.

C. H. Hsieh, C. W. Lee, S. Y. Huang, R. Wang, P. Yeh, and W. H. Cheng, Opt. Commun. 237, 285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Hsieh, R. Wang, Z. Wen, I. McMichael, P. Yeh, C. W. Lee, and W. H. Cheng, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wen, Z.

C. H. Hsieh, R. Wang, Z. Wen, I. McMichael, P. Yeh, C. W. Lee, and W. H. Cheng, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Worhoff, K.

C. Roeloffzen, R. M. Ridder, G. Sengo, K. Worhoff, and A. Driessen, paper P1.20 presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’02), Copenhagen, Denmark, September 8–12, 2002.

Yang, C.

S. Cao, C. Lin, C. Yang, E. Ning, J. Zhao, and G. Barbarossa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper ThC3.

Ye, X. G.

A. Zeng, X. G. Ye, J. Chon, and F. Liang, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper ThC4.

Yeh, P.

C. H. Hsieh, C. W. Lee, S. Y. Huang, R. Wang, P. Yeh, and W. H. Cheng, Opt. Commun. 237, 285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Hsieh, R. Wang, Z. Wen, I. McMichael, P. Yeh, C. W. Lee, and W. H. Cheng, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, New York, 1988), Chap. 3.

Yoshikuni, Y.

M. Kohtoku, S. Oku, Y. Kadota, Y. Shibata, and Y. Yoshikuni, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, A.

A. Zeng, X. G. Ye, J. Chon, and F. Liang, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper ThC4.

Zhao, J.

S. Cao, C. Lin, C. Yang, E. Ning, J. Zhao, and G. Barbarossa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper ThC3.

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Oguma, K. Jinguji, T. Kitoh, T. Shibata, and A. Himeno, Electron. Lett. 36, 1299 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (3)

M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, K. Jinguji, T. Shibata, A. Himeno, and Y. Hibino, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Kohtoku, S. Oku, Y. Kadota, Y. Shibata, and Y. Yoshikuni, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Hsieh, R. Wang, Z. Wen, I. McMichael, P. Yeh, C. W. Lee, and W. H. Cheng, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. H. Hsieh, C. W. Lee, S. Y. Huang, R. Wang, P. Yeh, and W. H. Cheng, Opt. Commun. 237, 285 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (5)

A. Zeng, X. G. Ye, J. Chon, and F. Liang, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper ThC4.

S. V. Kartalopoulos, Introduction to DWDM Technology: Data in a Rainbow (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), Chap. 1.

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, New York, 1988), Chap. 3.

C. Roeloffzen, R. M. Ridder, G. Sengo, K. Worhoff, and A. Driessen, paper P1.20 presented at the European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’02), Copenhagen, Denmark, September 8–12, 2002.

S. Cao, C. Lin, C. Yang, E. Ning, J. Zhao, and G. Barbarossa, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper ThC3.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of the ring cavity based flat-top birefringent interleaver. Inset, details of the ring cavity and the prism–air interface. Abbreviations defined in text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulation results of the transmission of output port 1 of a 25-GHz inerleaver, showing (a) the ripple and (b) the 0.5-dB passband.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulation results of the transmission of output port 1 of a 25-GHz interleaver, showing the 25-dB stopband and channel isolation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental measurement of the transmission at output port 1 of the 25-GHz interleaver.

Equations (2)

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I = 1 2 { 1 + cos [ 2 π λ ( n e n o ) L + ( ϕ e ϕ o ) ] } ,
ϕ e ϕ o = 2 tan 1 ( 1 R e 1 + R e tan ϕ ) 2 tan 1 ( 1 R o 1 + R o tan ϕ ) ,

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