Abstract

Single-channel waveguides and Y couplers were fabricated in chalcogenide thin films by use of femtosecond laser pulses from a 25-MHz repetition rate Ti:sapphire laser. Refractive-index differentials (Δn>10-2) were measured through interferometric microscopy and are higher than the typical values reported for oxide glasses. The dependence of the index differential on the peak intensity reveals the nonlinear nature of the photosensitivity in arsenic trisulfide below its bandgap energy, and the refractive-index change is correlated to the photoinduced structural changes inferred by Raman spectroscopy data. A free-electron model to predict the parametric dependence of Δn is proposed.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2002 (2)

2001 (5)

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and R. Vallee, Opt. Commun. 198, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Bruneel, J. Opt. Mater. 17, 379 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, Opt. Lett. 26, 1726 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garca, and E. Mazur, Opt. Lett. 26, 93 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Minoshima, A. M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 26, 1516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Kaiser, B. Rehfeld, M. Vicanek, and G. Simon, Phys. Rev. B 61, 11,437 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

K. Hirao and K. Miura, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Meneghini and A. Villeneuve, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2946 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

Aggarwal, I. D.

Brodeur, A.

Bruneel, J. L.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Bruneel, J. Opt. Mater. 17, 379 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cardinal, T.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Bruneel, J. Opt. Mater. 17, 379 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chan, J. W.

Couzi, M.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Bruneel, J. Opt. Mater. 17, 379 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Duguay, M. A.

Efimov, O. M.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Bruneel, J. Opt. Mater. 17, 379 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Galstian, T.

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and R. Vallee, Opt. Commun. 198, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Garca, J. F.

Glebov, L. B.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Bruneel, J. Opt. Mater. 17, 379 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hamel, V.

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and R. Vallee, Opt. Commun. 198, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Harbold, J. M.

Hartl, I.

Herman, S.

Hirao, K.

K. Hirao and K. Miura, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ho, N.

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, N. Ho, R. Vallee, and K. A. Richardson, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 125–126.

Huser, T.

Ilday, F. O.

Ippen, E. P.

Kaiser, A.

A. Kaiser, B. Rehfeld, M. Vicanek, and G. Simon, Phys. Rev. B 61, 11,437 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Knystautas, E. J.

Kowalevicz, A. M.

Krol, D. M.

Lopez, C.

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, N. Ho, R. Vallee, and K. A. Richardson, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 125–126.

Mazur, E.

Meneghini, C.

Mikla, V. I.

V. I. Mikla, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 8, 429 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Minoshima, K.

Miura, K.

K. Hirao and K. Miura, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, V. Q.

Park, S. H.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Bruneel, J. Opt. Mater. 17, 379 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

Rehfeld, B.

A. Kaiser, B. Rehfeld, M. Vicanek, and G. Simon, Phys. Rev. B 61, 11,437 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and R. Vallee, Opt. Commun. 198, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K. A.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Bruneel, J. Opt. Mater. 17, 379 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, N. Ho, R. Vallee, and K. A. Richardson, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 125–126.

Richardson, M.

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, N. Ho, R. Vallee, and K. A. Richardson, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 125–126.

Risbud, S.

Rivero, C.

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and R. Vallee, Opt. Commun. 198, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, N. Ho, R. Vallee, and K. A. Richardson, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 125–126.

Rubenchik, A. M.

Sanghera, J. S.

Schaffer, C. B.

Schulte, A.

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and R. Vallee, Opt. Commun. 198, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, L. B.

Shore, B. W.

Simon, G.

A. Kaiser, B. Rehfeld, M. Vicanek, and G. Simon, Phys. Rev. B 61, 11,437 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, B. C.

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Turcotte, K.

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and R. Vallee, Opt. Commun. 198, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vallee, R.

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and R. Vallee, Opt. Commun. 198, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, N. Ho, R. Vallee, and K. A. Richardson, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 125–126.

Van Stryland, E.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Bruneel, J. Opt. Mater. 17, 379 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vicanek, M.

A. Kaiser, B. Rehfeld, M. Vicanek, and G. Simon, Phys. Rev. B 61, 11,437 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Viens, J.-F.

Villeneuve, A.

Wise, F. W.

Zoubir, A.

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, N. Ho, R. Vallee, and K. A. Richardson, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 125–126.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Tanaka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

K. Hirao and K. Miura, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Mater. (1)

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Bruneel, J. Opt. Mater. 17, 379 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

V. I. Mikla, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 8, 429 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and R. Vallee, Opt. Commun. 198, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Kaiser, B. Rehfeld, M. Vicanek, and G. Simon, Phys. Rev. B 61, 11,437 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, N. Ho, R. Vallee, and K. A. Richardson, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 125–126.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical microscope images of (a) the unexposed film, (b) a single-channel waveguide, and (c) a Y coupler. (d)–(f) CCD images of the near-field pattern of the coupled modes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured Δn and calculated electron density versus (a) the integrated fluence (pulse intensity was set to 0.25 GW/cm2) and (b) the pulse intensity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Raman spectra of an as-deposited As2S3 film (unexposed) and of a written waveguide (exposed).

Equations (2)

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net=αItne+σkItk,
net=σkItkN0-neN0.

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