Abstract

A recent experiment [Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213 (2003)] indicated that filaments created in femtosecond high-power pulses propagating in air are surprisingly robust when interacting with microscopic water droplets. We present numerical modeling of the dynamics of the filament–droplet interaction. Our simulation results provide further insight into the interplay between the filament’s core and the wide transverse pedestal of the pulse. It is shown that the robustness of the filament comes from the transverse low-intensity pedestal that controls the formation of the central hot spot. Implications for penetration of wide, high-power beams through obscurants are discussed.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2003 (1)

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Méjean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and M. Mlejnek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 283902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. V. Moloney, M. Kolesik, M. Mlejnek, and E. M. Wright, Chaos 10, 559 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S. L. Chin, Opt. Commun. 171, 285 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, Laser Optoelectron. 29, 51 (1997).

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1972 (1)

Boutou, V.

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Méjean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Braun, A.

Chin, S. L.

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S. L. Chin, Opt. Commun. 171, 285 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Courvoisier, F.

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Méjean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Curley, P. F.

Du, D.

Franco, M. A.

Grillon, G.

Kasparian, J.

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Méjean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kolesik, M.

M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and M. Mlejnek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 283902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Moloney, M. Kolesik, M. Mlejnek, and E. M. Wright, Chaos 10, 559 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

Liu, X.

Méjean, G.

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Méjean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mlejnek, M.

M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and M. Mlejnek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 283902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Moloney, M. Kolesik, M. Mlejnek, and E. M. Wright, Chaos 10, 559 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, Opt. Lett. 23, 382 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J.

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and M. Mlejnek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 283902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Moloney, M. Kolesik, M. Mlejnek, and E. M. Wright, Chaos 10, 559 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, Opt. Lett. 23, 382 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

Mysyrowicz, A.

Nibbering, E. T. J.

Niedermeier, S.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, Laser Optoelectron. 29, 51 (1997).

Nikolov, S.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, Laser Optoelectron. 29, 51 (1997).

Peck, E. R.

Petit, S.

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S. L. Chin, Opt. Commun. 171, 285 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B. S.

Rairoux, P.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, Laser Optoelectron. 29, 51 (1997).

Reeder, K.

Ronneberger, F.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, Laser Optoelectron. 29, 51 (1997).

Salin, F.

Salmon, E.

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Méjean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sauerbrey, R.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, Laser Optoelectron. 29, 51 (1997).

Schillinger, H.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, Laser Optoelectron. 29, 51 (1997).

Squier, J.

Stein, B.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, Laser Optoelectron. 29, 51 (1997).

Talebpour, A.

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S. L. Chin, Opt. Commun. 171, 285 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wedekind, C.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, Laser Optoelectron. 29, 51 (1997).

Werner, C.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, Laser Optoelectron. 29, 51 (1997).

Wille, H.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, Laser Optoelectron. 29, 51 (1997).

Wolf, J.-P.

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Méjean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wöste, L.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, Laser Optoelectron. 29, 51 (1997).

Wright, E. M.

J. V. Moloney, M. Kolesik, M. Mlejnek, and E. M. Wright, Chaos 10, 559 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, Opt. Lett. 23, 382 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Méjean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Méjean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chaos (1)

J. V. Moloney, M. Kolesik, M. Mlejnek, and E. M. Wright, Chaos 10, 559 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Laser Optoelectron. (1)

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, Laser Optoelectron. 29, 51 (1997).

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S. L. Chin, Opt. Commun. 171, 285 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and M. Mlejnek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 283902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Maximal energy fluence as a function of the propagation distance for the free-propagating pulse and for two pulses hitting droplets. The filament dynamics remains qualitatively the same as in the unperturbed case. For some distance after the droplets the fluence behaviors are extremely similar, suggesting that the off-axis pulse content controls the central hot spot.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Overall plasma generation remains almost unaffected by collisions with droplets, independently of the pulse’s evolution stage when it hits the droplet. Under given conditions the plasma generation reflects most of the energy losses of the pulse.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Total optical field energy within the computational domain. The immediate energy loss in the collision with the droplet constitutes only several percent of the total. Overall, energy loss rates of the free-propagating and perturbed filaments are almost the same, indicating that the secondary induced energy losses (diffraction) are negligible.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Energy fluence with and without the droplet at two close propagation distances. The hole in the pulse carved out by the droplet is shown in the dotted curve. Diffraction together with the absence of the defocusing effect of plasma in the on-axis region causes fast healing of the hole. Shortly after collision, the perturbed filament exhibits higher on-axis fluence than the free-propagating filament. Very little ripple effect is visible.

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