Abstract

A newly designed jet-type, water-cooled heat sink (the funryu heat sink, meaning fountain flow in Japanese) yielded 255-W cw laser output at 808 nm from a 1-cm bar made from InGaAsP/InGaP quantum-well active layers with a 67% fill factor [70 quantum-well laser diode (LD) array along the 1-cm bar]. A funryu heat sink measuring 1.1 mm in thickness gave the LD 0.25 °C/W thermal resistance, one of the lowest values achieved with a 1-cm LD bar. Over a short period of operation, the device reached a maximum cw power of 255 W. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest power ever achieved in 808-nm LD operation. In the future, the funryu heat sink may be capable of 80-W cw operation over an extended lifetime of several thousand hours.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Beach, W. J. Benett, B. L. Freitas, D. Mundinger, B. J. Comaskey, R. W. Solarz, and M. A. Emanuel, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 966 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. A. Skidmore, B. L. Freitas, J. Crawford, J. Satariano, E. Utterback, L. Dimercurio, K. Cutter, and S. Sutton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 10 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Daiminger, F. Dorsch, and D. Lorenzen, Proc. SPIE 3682, 13 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Jandeleit, N. Wiedmann, A. Ostlender, W. Brandenburg, P. Loosen, and R. Poprawe, Proc. SPIE 3945, 270 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Nakai, M. Yamanaka, H. Miyajima, T. Kanzaki, and H. Kan, “Heat sink,” Japanese patent8-139479 pending (November8, 1994).
  6. G. A. Evans and J. M. Hammer, eds., Surface Emitting Semiconductor Laser and Arrays (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1993).
  7. R. Diehl, ed., High-Power Diode Lasers (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999).
  8. C.-L. Tien, Annu. Rev. Heat Transfer 6, 225 (1995).
  9. H. G. Treusch, J. Harrison, B. Morris, J. Powers, D. Brown, and J. Martin, Proc. SPIE 3945, 23 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. V. Apollonov, S. I. Derzhavin, V. A. Filonenko, V. V. Kuzminov, D. A. Mashkovsky, A. M. Prokhorov, and V. N. Timoshkin, Proc. SPIE 3889, 71 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Nishikawa and H. Takigawa, Proc. SPIE 3628, 71 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Takigawa and Y. Nishikawa, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper TuH2.

2000 (4)

J. A. Skidmore, B. L. Freitas, J. Crawford, J. Satariano, E. Utterback, L. Dimercurio, K. Cutter, and S. Sutton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 10 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Jandeleit, N. Wiedmann, A. Ostlender, W. Brandenburg, P. Loosen, and R. Poprawe, Proc. SPIE 3945, 270 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Treusch, J. Harrison, B. Morris, J. Powers, D. Brown, and J. Martin, Proc. SPIE 3945, 23 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Apollonov, S. I. Derzhavin, V. A. Filonenko, V. V. Kuzminov, D. A. Mashkovsky, A. M. Prokhorov, and V. N. Timoshkin, Proc. SPIE 3889, 71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

F. Daiminger, F. Dorsch, and D. Lorenzen, Proc. SPIE 3682, 13 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

C.-L. Tien, Annu. Rev. Heat Transfer 6, 225 (1995).

1992 (1)

R. Beach, W. J. Benett, B. L. Freitas, D. Mundinger, B. J. Comaskey, R. W. Solarz, and M. A. Emanuel, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 966 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

Y. Nishikawa and H. Takigawa, Proc. SPIE 3628, 71 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Apollonov, V. V.

V. V. Apollonov, S. I. Derzhavin, V. A. Filonenko, V. V. Kuzminov, D. A. Mashkovsky, A. M. Prokhorov, and V. N. Timoshkin, Proc. SPIE 3889, 71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Beach, R.

R. Beach, W. J. Benett, B. L. Freitas, D. Mundinger, B. J. Comaskey, R. W. Solarz, and M. A. Emanuel, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 966 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Benett, W. J.

R. Beach, W. J. Benett, B. L. Freitas, D. Mundinger, B. J. Comaskey, R. W. Solarz, and M. A. Emanuel, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 966 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brandenburg, W.

J. Jandeleit, N. Wiedmann, A. Ostlender, W. Brandenburg, P. Loosen, and R. Poprawe, Proc. SPIE 3945, 270 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D.

H. G. Treusch, J. Harrison, B. Morris, J. Powers, D. Brown, and J. Martin, Proc. SPIE 3945, 23 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Comaskey, B. J.

R. Beach, W. J. Benett, B. L. Freitas, D. Mundinger, B. J. Comaskey, R. W. Solarz, and M. A. Emanuel, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 966 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, J.

J. A. Skidmore, B. L. Freitas, J. Crawford, J. Satariano, E. Utterback, L. Dimercurio, K. Cutter, and S. Sutton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 10 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cutter, K.

J. A. Skidmore, B. L. Freitas, J. Crawford, J. Satariano, E. Utterback, L. Dimercurio, K. Cutter, and S. Sutton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 10 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Daiminger, F.

F. Daiminger, F. Dorsch, and D. Lorenzen, Proc. SPIE 3682, 13 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Derzhavin, S. I.

V. V. Apollonov, S. I. Derzhavin, V. A. Filonenko, V. V. Kuzminov, D. A. Mashkovsky, A. M. Prokhorov, and V. N. Timoshkin, Proc. SPIE 3889, 71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dimercurio, L.

J. A. Skidmore, B. L. Freitas, J. Crawford, J. Satariano, E. Utterback, L. Dimercurio, K. Cutter, and S. Sutton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 10 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dorsch, F.

F. Daiminger, F. Dorsch, and D. Lorenzen, Proc. SPIE 3682, 13 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Emanuel, M. A.

R. Beach, W. J. Benett, B. L. Freitas, D. Mundinger, B. J. Comaskey, R. W. Solarz, and M. A. Emanuel, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 966 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Filonenko, V. A.

V. V. Apollonov, S. I. Derzhavin, V. A. Filonenko, V. V. Kuzminov, D. A. Mashkovsky, A. M. Prokhorov, and V. N. Timoshkin, Proc. SPIE 3889, 71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Freitas, B. L.

J. A. Skidmore, B. L. Freitas, J. Crawford, J. Satariano, E. Utterback, L. Dimercurio, K. Cutter, and S. Sutton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 10 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Beach, W. J. Benett, B. L. Freitas, D. Mundinger, B. J. Comaskey, R. W. Solarz, and M. A. Emanuel, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 966 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, J.

H. G. Treusch, J. Harrison, B. Morris, J. Powers, D. Brown, and J. Martin, Proc. SPIE 3945, 23 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jandeleit, J.

J. Jandeleit, N. Wiedmann, A. Ostlender, W. Brandenburg, P. Loosen, and R. Poprawe, Proc. SPIE 3945, 270 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kan, H.

S. Nakai, M. Yamanaka, H. Miyajima, T. Kanzaki, and H. Kan, “Heat sink,” Japanese patent8-139479 pending (November8, 1994).

Kanzaki, T.

S. Nakai, M. Yamanaka, H. Miyajima, T. Kanzaki, and H. Kan, “Heat sink,” Japanese patent8-139479 pending (November8, 1994).

Kuzminov, V. V.

V. V. Apollonov, S. I. Derzhavin, V. A. Filonenko, V. V. Kuzminov, D. A. Mashkovsky, A. M. Prokhorov, and V. N. Timoshkin, Proc. SPIE 3889, 71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Loosen, P.

J. Jandeleit, N. Wiedmann, A. Ostlender, W. Brandenburg, P. Loosen, and R. Poprawe, Proc. SPIE 3945, 270 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lorenzen, D.

F. Daiminger, F. Dorsch, and D. Lorenzen, Proc. SPIE 3682, 13 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J.

H. G. Treusch, J. Harrison, B. Morris, J. Powers, D. Brown, and J. Martin, Proc. SPIE 3945, 23 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mashkovsky, D. A.

V. V. Apollonov, S. I. Derzhavin, V. A. Filonenko, V. V. Kuzminov, D. A. Mashkovsky, A. M. Prokhorov, and V. N. Timoshkin, Proc. SPIE 3889, 71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miyajima, H.

S. Nakai, M. Yamanaka, H. Miyajima, T. Kanzaki, and H. Kan, “Heat sink,” Japanese patent8-139479 pending (November8, 1994).

Morris, B.

H. G. Treusch, J. Harrison, B. Morris, J. Powers, D. Brown, and J. Martin, Proc. SPIE 3945, 23 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mundinger, D.

R. Beach, W. J. Benett, B. L. Freitas, D. Mundinger, B. J. Comaskey, R. W. Solarz, and M. A. Emanuel, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 966 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nakai, S.

S. Nakai, M. Yamanaka, H. Miyajima, T. Kanzaki, and H. Kan, “Heat sink,” Japanese patent8-139479 pending (November8, 1994).

Nishikawa, Y.

Y. Nishikawa and H. Takigawa, Proc. SPIE 3628, 71 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. Takigawa and Y. Nishikawa, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper TuH2.

Ostlender, A.

J. Jandeleit, N. Wiedmann, A. Ostlender, W. Brandenburg, P. Loosen, and R. Poprawe, Proc. SPIE 3945, 270 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Poprawe, R.

J. Jandeleit, N. Wiedmann, A. Ostlender, W. Brandenburg, P. Loosen, and R. Poprawe, Proc. SPIE 3945, 270 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Powers, J.

H. G. Treusch, J. Harrison, B. Morris, J. Powers, D. Brown, and J. Martin, Proc. SPIE 3945, 23 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Prokhorov, A. M.

V. V. Apollonov, S. I. Derzhavin, V. A. Filonenko, V. V. Kuzminov, D. A. Mashkovsky, A. M. Prokhorov, and V. N. Timoshkin, Proc. SPIE 3889, 71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Satariano, J.

J. A. Skidmore, B. L. Freitas, J. Crawford, J. Satariano, E. Utterback, L. Dimercurio, K. Cutter, and S. Sutton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 10 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Skidmore, J. A.

J. A. Skidmore, B. L. Freitas, J. Crawford, J. Satariano, E. Utterback, L. Dimercurio, K. Cutter, and S. Sutton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 10 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Solarz, R. W.

R. Beach, W. J. Benett, B. L. Freitas, D. Mundinger, B. J. Comaskey, R. W. Solarz, and M. A. Emanuel, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 966 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sutton, S.

J. A. Skidmore, B. L. Freitas, J. Crawford, J. Satariano, E. Utterback, L. Dimercurio, K. Cutter, and S. Sutton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 10 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Takigawa, H.

Y. Nishikawa and H. Takigawa, Proc. SPIE 3628, 71 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. Takigawa and Y. Nishikawa, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper TuH2.

Tien, C.-L.

C.-L. Tien, Annu. Rev. Heat Transfer 6, 225 (1995).

Timoshkin, V. N.

V. V. Apollonov, S. I. Derzhavin, V. A. Filonenko, V. V. Kuzminov, D. A. Mashkovsky, A. M. Prokhorov, and V. N. Timoshkin, Proc. SPIE 3889, 71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Treusch, H. G.

H. G. Treusch, J. Harrison, B. Morris, J. Powers, D. Brown, and J. Martin, Proc. SPIE 3945, 23 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Utterback, E.

J. A. Skidmore, B. L. Freitas, J. Crawford, J. Satariano, E. Utterback, L. Dimercurio, K. Cutter, and S. Sutton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 10 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wiedmann, N.

J. Jandeleit, N. Wiedmann, A. Ostlender, W. Brandenburg, P. Loosen, and R. Poprawe, Proc. SPIE 3945, 270 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, M.

S. Nakai, M. Yamanaka, H. Miyajima, T. Kanzaki, and H. Kan, “Heat sink,” Japanese patent8-139479 pending (November8, 1994).

Annu. Rev. Heat Transfer (1)

C.-L. Tien, Annu. Rev. Heat Transfer 6, 225 (1995).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. A. Skidmore, B. L. Freitas, J. Crawford, J. Satariano, E. Utterback, L. Dimercurio, K. Cutter, and S. Sutton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 10 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Beach, W. J. Benett, B. L. Freitas, D. Mundinger, B. J. Comaskey, R. W. Solarz, and M. A. Emanuel, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 966 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (5)

F. Daiminger, F. Dorsch, and D. Lorenzen, Proc. SPIE 3682, 13 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Jandeleit, N. Wiedmann, A. Ostlender, W. Brandenburg, P. Loosen, and R. Poprawe, Proc. SPIE 3945, 270 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Treusch, J. Harrison, B. Morris, J. Powers, D. Brown, and J. Martin, Proc. SPIE 3945, 23 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Apollonov, S. I. Derzhavin, V. A. Filonenko, V. V. Kuzminov, D. A. Mashkovsky, A. M. Prokhorov, and V. N. Timoshkin, Proc. SPIE 3889, 71 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nishikawa and H. Takigawa, Proc. SPIE 3628, 71 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

H. Takigawa and Y. Nishikawa, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper TuH2.

S. Nakai, M. Yamanaka, H. Miyajima, T. Kanzaki, and H. Kan, “Heat sink,” Japanese patent8-139479 pending (November8, 1994).

G. A. Evans and J. M. Hammer, eds., Surface Emitting Semiconductor Laser and Arrays (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1993).

R. Diehl, ed., High-Power Diode Lasers (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram and schematic of the funryu water-cooled heat sink.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output center wavelength distribution versus the emitter position of the LD bar.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Thermal resistance as a function of the flow rate of the cooling water.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

I–L characteristics of a LD bar on the funryu.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Various Types of Heat Sink for LD Bars

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Rth=RjuncCu+Rcv+Rf.
Rcv=dNuKS,
Nu=1.51Re0.44Pr0.4L/d-0.11,
Rf=ΔTf/q,

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