Abstract

The repetition rate and carrier-envelope phase offset frequencies of a turnkey, all-fiber-based continuum generator were phase locked to a hydrogen maser. The frequency of the hydrogen maser was calibrated with a highly stable cesium atomic clock, and therefore a fully phase-locked optical frequency comb with well-defined absolute frequencies was obtained. In contrast with the commonly used Ti:sapphire-laser-based systems, we have accomplished a fully turnkey system with no user-adjustable parts. To evaluate the performance of this novel system, we performed absolute frequency measurements in the telecommunications region and at 1064 nm and compared them with our traditional Ti:sapphire-based comb.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, H. Inaba, H. Takada, A. Hirai, H. Matsumoto, T. Sugiura, and M. Yoshida, Opt. Lett. 28, 1516 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. Tauser and A. Leitensdorfer, Opt. Express 11, 594 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Opt. Lett. 29, 250 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. E. Fermann, M. Hofer, F. Haberl, and S. P. Craig-Ryan, Electron. Lett. 26, 1737 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. W. Nicholson, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, Appl. Phys. B 77, 211 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, G. C. Cho, M. E. Fermann, T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, F.-L. Hong, H. Matsumoto, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, Vol. 94 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), p. 176.
    [CrossRef]
  10. F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, J. Jiang, R. Guo, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, and H. Matsumoto, Opt. Lett. 28, 2324 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Y. Zhang, R. Guo, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, Opt. Commun. 235, 377 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (2)

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Y. Zhang, R. Guo, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, Opt. Commun. 235, 377 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Opt. Lett. 29, 250 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (5)

2000 (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. E. Fermann, M. Hofer, F. Haberl, and S. P. Craig-Ryan, Electron. Lett. 26, 1737 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Abeeluck, A. K.

J. W. Nicholson, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, Appl. Phys. B 77, 211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cho, G. C.

I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, G. C. Cho, M. E. Fermann, T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, F.-L. Hong, H. Matsumoto, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, Vol. 94 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), p. 176.
[CrossRef]

Coen, S.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Corwin, K. L.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Craig-Ryan, S. P.

M. E. Fermann, M. Hofer, F. Haberl, and S. P. Craig-Ryan, Electron. Lett. 26, 1737 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddams, S. A.

B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Opt. Lett. 29, 250 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudley, J. M.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fermann, M. E.

M. E. Fermann, M. Hofer, F. Haberl, and S. P. Craig-Ryan, Electron. Lett. 26, 1737 (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, G. C. Cho, M. E. Fermann, T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, F.-L. Hong, H. Matsumoto, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, Vol. 94 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), p. 176.
[CrossRef]

Guo, R.

Haberl, F.

M. E. Fermann, M. Hofer, F. Haberl, and S. P. Craig-Ryan, Electron. Lett. 26, 1737 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hartl, I.

I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, G. C. Cho, M. E. Fermann, T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, F.-L. Hong, H. Matsumoto, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, Vol. 94 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), p. 176.
[CrossRef]

Headley, C.

J. W. Nicholson, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, Appl. Phys. B 77, 211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hirai, A.

Hofer, M.

M. E. Fermann, M. Hofer, F. Haberl, and S. P. Craig-Ryan, Electron. Lett. 26, 1737 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hong, F.-L.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Y. Zhang, R. Guo, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, Opt. Commun. 235, 377 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, H. Inaba, H. Takada, A. Hirai, H. Matsumoto, T. Sugiura, and M. Yoshida, Opt. Lett. 28, 1516 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, J. Jiang, R. Guo, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, and H. Matsumoto, Opt. Lett. 28, 2324 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, G. C. Cho, M. E. Fermann, T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, F.-L. Hong, H. Matsumoto, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, Vol. 94 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), p. 176.
[CrossRef]

Imeshev, G.

I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, G. C. Cho, M. E. Fermann, T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, F.-L. Hong, H. Matsumoto, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, Vol. 94 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), p. 176.
[CrossRef]

Inaba, H.

Ishikawa, J.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Y. Zhang, R. Guo, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, Opt. Commun. 235, 377 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J.

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jørgensen, C. G.

J. W. Nicholson, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, Appl. Phys. B 77, 211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leitensdorfer, A.

Matsumoto, H.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Y. Zhang, R. Guo, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, Opt. Commun. 235, 377 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, H. Inaba, H. Takada, A. Hirai, H. Matsumoto, T. Sugiura, and M. Yoshida, Opt. Lett. 28, 1516 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, J. Jiang, R. Guo, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, and H. Matsumoto, Opt. Lett. 28, 2324 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, G. C. Cho, M. E. Fermann, T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, F.-L. Hong, H. Matsumoto, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, Vol. 94 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), p. 176.
[CrossRef]

Minoshima, K.

F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, H. Inaba, H. Takada, A. Hirai, H. Matsumoto, T. Sugiura, and M. Yoshida, Opt. Lett. 28, 1516 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, J. Jiang, R. Guo, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, and H. Matsumoto, Opt. Lett. 28, 2324 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, G. C. Cho, M. E. Fermann, T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, F.-L. Hong, H. Matsumoto, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, Vol. 94 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), p. 176.
[CrossRef]

Newbury, N. R.

B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Opt. Lett. 29, 250 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, J. W.

J. W. Nicholson, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, Appl. Phys. B 77, 211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, G. C. Cho, M. E. Fermann, T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, F.-L. Hong, H. Matsumoto, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, Vol. 94 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), p. 176.
[CrossRef]

Onae, A.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Y. Zhang, R. Guo, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, Opt. Commun. 235, 377 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, H. Inaba, H. Takada, A. Hirai, H. Matsumoto, T. Sugiura, and M. Yoshida, Opt. Lett. 28, 1516 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, J. Jiang, R. Guo, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, and H. Matsumoto, Opt. Lett. 28, 2324 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, G. C. Cho, M. E. Fermann, T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, F.-L. Hong, H. Matsumoto, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, Vol. 94 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), p. 176.
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichert, J.

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schibli, T. R.

F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, J. Jiang, R. Guo, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, and H. Matsumoto, Opt. Lett. 28, 2324 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, G. C. Cho, M. E. Fermann, T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, F.-L. Hong, H. Matsumoto, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, Vol. 94 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), p. 176.
[CrossRef]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugiura, T.

Takada, H.

Tauser, F.

Udem, Th.

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Washburn, B. R.

Weber, K.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, M. F.

J. W. Nicholson, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, Appl. Phys. B 77, 211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, G. C. Cho, M. E. Fermann, T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, F.-L. Hong, H. Matsumoto, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, Vol. 94 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), p. 176.
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, M.

Zhang, Y.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Y. Zhang, R. Guo, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, Opt. Commun. 235, 377 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. W. Nicholson, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, Appl. Phys. B 77, 211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. E. Fermann, M. Hofer, F. Haberl, and S. P. Craig-Ryan, Electron. Lett. 26, 1737 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Y. Zhang, R. Guo, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, Opt. Commun. 235, 377 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3568 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, G. C. Cho, M. E. Fermann, T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, F.-L. Hong, H. Matsumoto, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, Vol. 94 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), p. 176.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental turnkey setup of the frequency-measurement system: PZT, piezoelectric transducer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral output of the comb generator. The dotted and solid curves were measured with an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) and a spectrometer with an InGaAs detector, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Beat notes of (a) fCEO, FWHM 200 kHz at a 4-ms sweep time; (b) fbeat between the fiber-based comb and the acetylene-stabilized diode laser, FWHM 100150 kHz at 29-ms sweep time corresponding to the linewidth of the laser diode; (c) fbeat with iodine-stabilized Nd:YAG laser, FWHM 30 kHz at a 10-ms sweep time. Locking fCEO and frep does not increase the width of fbeat at 1064 and 1542 nm if the loop gain is chosen appropriately. RBW, resolution bandwidth.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Root Allan variance of the beat notes between the comb and the stabilized lasers. Filled circles, acetylene measured with the turnkey fiber system; filled squares, acetylene measured with the Ti:sapphire system; open circles, iodine measured with the turnkey fiber system; open squares, iodine measured with the Ti:sapphire laser. Dotted line, stability of the H maser that was used as a frequency reference for all the measurements; dashed–dotted line, root Allan variance between two iodine-stabilized lasers of the same type.

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