Abstract

Merging of ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR OCT) and adaptive optics (AO), resulting in high axial (3 µm) and improved transverse resolution (510 µm) is demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge in in vivo retinal imaging. A compact (300 mm×300 mm) closed-loop AO system, based on a real-time Hartmann–Shack wave-front sensor operating at 30 Hz and a 37-actuator membrane deformable mirror, is interfaced to an UHR OCT system, based on a commercial OCT instrument, employing a compact Ti:sapphire laser with 130-nm bandwidth. Closed-loop correction of both ocular and system aberrations results in a residual uncorrected wave-front rms of 0.1 µm for a 3.68-mm pupil diameter. When this level of correction is achieved, OCT images are obtained under a static mirror configuration. By use of AO, an improvement of the transverse resolution of two to three times, compared with UHR OCT systems used so far, is obtained. A significant signal-to-noise ratio improvement of up to 9 dB in corrected compared with uncorrected OCT tomograms is also achieved.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2004 (1)

W. Drexler, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 47 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

D. T. Miller, J. Qu, R. S. Jonnal, and K. Thorn, Proc. SPIE 4956, 65 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Fernández and P. Artal, Opt. Express 11, 1056 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (3)

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Med. 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, A. Guirao, A. Berrio, and D. Williams, J. Vis. 1, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Fernandez, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, Opt. Lett. 26, 746 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

Applegate, R. A.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, and R. Webb, in Vision Science and Its Applications, V. Lakshminarayanan, ed., Vol. 35 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 232–244.

Artal, P.

Berrio, A.

P. Artal, A. Guirao, A. Berrio, and D. Williams, J. Vis. 1, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

Campbell, M. C. W.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donnelly, W. J.

Drexler, W.

W. Drexler, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 47 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Med. 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 24, 1221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, E. J.

Fernández, E. J.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Med. 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 24, 1221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghanta, R. K.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Med. 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guirao, A.

P. Artal, A. Guirao, A. Berrio, and D. Williams, J. Vis. 1, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hebert, T. J.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iglesias, I.

Ippen, E. P.

Jonnal, R. S.

D. T. Miller, J. Qu, R. S. Jonnal, and K. Thorn, Proc. SPIE 4956, 65 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Med. 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 24, 1221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. D.

Liang, J.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, D. T.

D. T. Miller, J. Qu, R. S. Jonnal, and K. Thorn, Proc. SPIE 4956, 65 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morgner, U.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Med. 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 24, 1221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Navarro, R.

Pitris, C.

Prieto, P. M.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qu, J.

D. T. Miller, J. Qu, R. S. Jonnal, and K. Thorn, Proc. SPIE 4956, 65 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Queener, H.

Romero-Borja, F.

Roorda, A.

Schuman, J. S.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Med. 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwiegerling, J. T.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, and R. Webb, in Vision Science and Its Applications, V. Lakshminarayanan, ed., Vol. 35 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 232–244.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thibos, L. N.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, and R. Webb, in Vision Science and Its Applications, V. Lakshminarayanan, ed., Vol. 35 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 232–244.

Thorn, K.

D. T. Miller, J. Qu, R. S. Jonnal, and K. Thorn, Proc. SPIE 4956, 65 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vargas-Martín, F.

Webb, R.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, and R. Webb, in Vision Science and Its Applications, V. Lakshminarayanan, ed., Vol. 35 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 232–244.

Williams, D.

P. Artal, A. Guirao, A. Berrio, and D. Williams, J. Vis. 1, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. R.

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

W. Drexler, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 47 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Vis. (1)

P. Artal, A. Guirao, A. Berrio, and D. Williams, J. Vis. 1, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Med. (1)

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, R. K. Ghanta, F. X. Kärtner, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, Nat. Med. 7, 502 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. T. Miller, J. Qu, R. S. Jonnal, and K. Thorn, Proc. SPIE 4956, 65 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, and R. Webb, in Vision Science and Its Applications, V. Lakshminarayanan, ed., Vol. 35 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 232–244.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

AO UHR OCT system: DBD, dual balanced detection; PCs, polarization controllers; OA, optical attenuator; OF, 100 m of optical fiber; DC, dispersion compensation; L’s, achromatic doublet lenses; BB, removable beam blocker; DFM, deformable mirror; BS, removable beam splitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Wave front for the A, uncorrected and D, corrected case and the associated PSFs for the B, C, uncorrected and E, F, corrected cases are indicated. G, Evolution of the rms error (top, black) of the corrected wave front and representative Zernike coefficients as a function of time for the same subject. A residual uncorrected wave front of 0.1 µm for a 3.68-mm pupil diameter as well as an improvement of more than ten times of the Strehl ratio is achieved, although using broad-bandwidth (130-nm) light.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

In vivo AO UHR OCT tomograms of a normal human eye in the foveal region for the A, uncorrected as well as B, corrected case (600 A-scans over a line of 2.8 mm, transverse sampling rate of 5 µm). B, SNR improvement of up to 9 dB as well as 510µm transverse in addition to 3µm axial resolution could be achieved by wave-front corrections introduced by a 3.68-mm diameter beam. C, D, Small features within the ganglion cell layer, as well as inner plexiform layer, that might correspond to vessels with 1222µm diameter are clearly visualized in twofold enlargements.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Aberration-corrected vertical AO UHR tomogram of a normal human eye in the parafoveal region across a line of 1.125 mm (600 A-scans, transverse sampling rate of 2 µm). The same proportions are used as in Fig. 3A; B is a twofold enlargement of A. Intraretinal features probably corresponding to vessels with 723µm as well as 15µm diameter are clearly visualized C, in the ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer (fourfold enlargement) as well as D, B (arrows), in the choroid, indicating a transverse resolution of the order of 510 µm.

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