Abstract

Coupling between the lowest-loss TE01 modes of two touching hollow-core Bragg fibers is considered with a view to designing a directional coupler. We have found that for fibers with core radii larger than 10 µm one can identify broad frequency ranges in which intermodal coupling strength exceeds supermode radiation losses by an order of magnitude, thus opening the possibility of building a directional coupler. We attribute such unusually strong intermode coupling both to the resonant effects in the intermirror cavity and a proximity interaction between the leaky modes localized in the mirror.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2004 (2)

2003 (3)

K. Saitoh, Y. Sato, and M. Koshiba, Opt. Express 11, 3188 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, Nature 424, 657 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I. M. Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, M. C. J. Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, Nature 420, 650 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Lee, J. B. Eom, J. Kim, D. S. Moon, U.-C. Paek, and G.-H. Yang, Opt. Lett. 27, 812 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Allan, D. C.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, Nature 424, 657 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Argyros, A.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I. M. Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, M. C. J. Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barton, G.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I. M. Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, M. C. J. Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bassett, I. M.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I. M. Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, M. C. J. Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Benoit, G.

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, Nature 420, 650 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birks, T. A.

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper PDP24.

Borrelli, N. F.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, Nature 424, 657 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couny, F.

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper PDP24.

Coupland, S.

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper PDP24.

Engeness, T. D.

Eom, J. B.

Farr, L.

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper PDP24.

Fellew, M.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I. M. Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, M. C. J. Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fink, Y.

Flea, R.

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper PDP24.

Gallagher, M. T.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, Nature 424, 657 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hart, S. D.

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, Nature 420, 650 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henry, G.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I. M. Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, M. C. J. Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ibanescu, M.

Issa, N. A.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I. M. Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, M. C. J. Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, S. A.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, S. G.

Katagiri, T.

Kim, J.

Knight, J. C.

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper PDP24.

Koch, K. W.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, Nature 424, 657 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koshiba, M.

Langford, A.

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper PDP24.

Large, M. C. J.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I. M. Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, M. C. J. Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lawman, M.

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper PDP24.

Lee, B. H.

Mangan, B. J.

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper PDP24.

Manos, S.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I. M. Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, M. C. J. Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mason, M.

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper PDP24.

Matsuura, Y.

Miyagi, M.

Moon, D. S.

Muller, D.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, Nature 424, 657 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padden, W.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I. M. Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, M. C. J. Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Paek, U.-C.

Poladian, L.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I. M. Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, M. C. J. Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, P. J.

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper PDP24.

Russell, P. St. J.

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper PDP24.

Sabert, H.

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper PDP24.

Saitoh, K.

Sato, Y.

Skorobogatiy, M.

Smith, C. M.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, Nature 424, 657 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soljacic, M.

Temelkuran, B.

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, Nature 420, 650 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Eijkelenborg, M. A.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I. M. Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, M. C. J. Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Venkataraman, N.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, Nature 424, 657 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weisberg, O.

West, J. A.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, Nature 424, 657 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, D. P.

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper PDP24.

Yang, G.-H.

Zagari, J.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I. M. Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, M. C. J. Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, Nature 424, 657 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, Nature 420, 650 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I. M. Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, M. C. J. Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (1)

B. J. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper PDP24.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Pair of identical touching hollow Bragg fibers. The dielectric profile along the interfiber center line resembles a one-dimensional Bragg grating with a central defect formed by the two external layers of the fiber mirrors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized coupling strength and supermode radiation losses as a function of fiber core radii Rc at λ=1.45 µm. With increasing core radius one observes the tendency for a gradual increase of the coupling strength relative to the highest radiation loss of the supermodes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized coupling strength and supermode radiation losses as a function of wavelength λ for Rc=15 µm and interfiber separations d=0,0.2,0.5 µm. For 1.4 µm<λ<1.55 µm one observes a factor-of-10 ratio of coupling strength to the highest radiation loss of the supermodes. Sharp resonances in the coupling strength correspond to the accidental mode crossing of TE01 with high-angular-momentum modes of the reflector. For d=0 µm the Ey fields are presented at the frequencies close to and directly at one of the sharp resonances. The region 1.55 µm<λ<1.65 µm is dominated by prolonged coupling between TE01 and an m=2 mode, leading to a broad resonance and to an increase in the supermode losses.

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