A numerical and experimental analysis of the stimulated Brillouin scattering in a single-mode optical fiber for distributed sensing applications is carried out in the frequency domain. The theoretical model describing the Brillouin interaction is solved by taking into account the temporal dynamics of the acoustic wave that is involved. The simulations and the experimental results reveal the role played by the ac component of the acoustic wave, which is responsible for significant changes of the small-signal stimulated Brillouin scattering transfer function that occur when the modulation frequency rises above the natural Brillouin gain spectrum linewidth. One should take these effects into account to perform accurate signal processing of frequency-domain signals in high-resolution distributed sensing applications.
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