Abstract

Multilevel phase-type diffractive lenses were fabricated by translating a filament of a femtosecond laser pulse into three-dimensional space inside synthesized silica. The profile of the lenses was designed by use of a multilevel approximation to a kinoform lens. Two-level diffractive lenses with multiple layers along the optical axis provided a maximum efficiency of 37.6% at a wavelength of 632.8 nm. A four-level diffractive lens provided a maximum efficiency of 56.9%. The lenses fabricated with filamentation were free from birefringence.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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2003

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1889 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 6916 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326&327, 472 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, Opt. Lett. 28, 2491 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

2001

1999

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 171, 279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

1989

1970

H. Dammann, Optik 31, 95 (1970).

Asano, T.

Baumberg, J. J.

Bricchi, E.

Brodeur, A.

Buralli, D. A.

Chichkov, B. N.

Dammann, H.

H. Dammann, Optik 31, 95 (1970).

Davis, K. M.

Franco, M.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 171, 279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, J. F.

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 2002).

Hirao, K.

Itoh, K.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326&327, 472 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 6916 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, Opt. Lett. 28, 2491 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1889 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, D. Kuroda, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, Opt. Express 10, 978 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, T. Toma, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, Opt. Lett. 26, 19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

Klappauf, B. G.

Kuroda, D.

Mazur, E.

Mills, J. D.

Miura, K.

Morris, G. M.

Mysyrowicz, A.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 171, 279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

Nolte, S.

Prade, B.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 171, 279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. R.

Saito, M.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326&327, 472 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C. B.

Sudrie, L.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 171, 279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Takahashi, M.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326&327, 472 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tokuda, Y.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326&327, 472 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Toma, T.

Tunnermann, A.

Watanabe, W.

W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, Opt. Lett. 28, 2491 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1889 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 6916 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326&327, 472 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, D. Kuroda, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, Opt. Express 10, 978 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, T. Toma, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, Opt. Lett. 26, 19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Will, M.

Yamada, K.

W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, Opt. Lett. 28, 2491 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1889 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 6916 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326&327, 472 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, T. Toma, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, Opt. Lett. 26, 19 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yoko, T.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326&327, 472 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Two- and four-level approximations of a phase-type diffractive lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Design of a two-level phase-type diffractive lens consisting of (a) two and (b) four layers. (c) Side view and (d) top view of the fabricated two-level phase-type diffractive lens, consisting of four layers with a changed refractive index.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Design of a four-level phase-type diffractive lens. (b) Side view and (c) top view of a fabricated four-level phase-type diffractive lens. (d) Focal spot when a He–Ne laser beam (632.8 nm) was incident upon the lens.

Equations (2)

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ϕr=2πm-r22λ0f,    rmr<rm+1,
ηN=sin2π/Nπ/N=sinc21/N.

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