Abstract

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of biological tissues often have low contrast. Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography (SOCT) methods have been developed to enhance contrast but remain limited because most tissues are not spectrally active in the frequency bands of laser sources commonly used in OCT. Near-infrared (NIR) dyes with absorption spectra features within the OCT source spectrum can be used for enhancing contrast in this situation. We introduce and demonstrate the use of NIR dyes as contrast agents for SOCT. Contrast-enhanced images are compared with fluorescence microscopy, demonstrating a link between SOCT and fluorescence imaging.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2003 (4)

2002 (2)

J. K. Barton, J. B. Hoying, and C. J. Sullivan, Acad. Radiol. 9S, 52 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Marks, A. L. Oldenburg, J. J. Reynolds, and S. A. Boppart, Opt. Lett. 27, 2010 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1992 (1)

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

D. L. Jones and T. W. Parks, IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Signal Process. 38, 2127 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Aalders, M. C. G.

Barton, J. K.

J. K. Barton, J. B. Hoying, and C. J. Sullivan, Acad. Radiol. 9S, 52 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

Choma, M. A.

Drexler, W.

Faber, D. J.

Fercher, A. F.

Flock, S. T.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gemert, M. J. C.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hoying, J. B.

J. K. Barton, J. B. Hoying, and C. J. Sullivan, Acad. Radiol. 9S, 52 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Izatt, J. A.

K. D. Rao, M. A. Choma, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 28, 340 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. van Leeuwen, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe Focus Meeting on Novel Biomedical Optical Spectroscopy, Imaging, and Diagnostics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 13.

Jacques, S. L.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. L.

D. L. Jones and T. W. Parks, IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Signal Process. 38, 2127 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kartner, F. C.

Kowalczyk, A.

Kulkarni, M. D.

T. G. van Leeuwen, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe Focus Meeting on Novel Biomedical Optical Spectroscopy, Imaging, and Diagnostics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 13.

Lee, T. M.

Leitgeb, R.

Li, X. D.

Lindmo, T.

Lkberg, O. J.

Luo, W.

Marks, D. L.

Mik, E. G.

Morgner, U.

Oldenburg, A. L.

Parks, T. W.

D. L. Jones and T. W. Parks, IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Signal Process. 38, 2127 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pitris, C.

Rao, K. D.

Reynolds, J. J.

Rollins, A. M.

Ryset, A.

Simonsen, A.

Sitafalwalla, S. S.

Star, W. M.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sticker, M.

Stoyanov, S.

S. Stoyanov, in Near-Infrared Application in Biotechnology, R. Raghavachari, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001), pp. 35–93.

Stren, T.

Sullivan, C. J.

J. K. Barton, J. B. Hoying, and C. J. Sullivan, Acad. Radiol. 9S, 52 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Suslick, K. S.

Svaasand, L. O.

Toublan, F. J.

van Leeuwen, T. G.

D. J. Faber, E. G. Mik, M. C. G. Aalders, and T. G. van Leeuwen, Opt. Lett. 28, 1436 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. van Leeuwen, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe Focus Meeting on Novel Biomedical Optical Spectroscopy, Imaging, and Diagnostics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 13.

Wilson, B. C.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wojtkowski, M.

Xu, C.

C. Xu and S. A. Boppart, presented at the OSA Biomedical Topical Meeting, Miami, Florida, April 14–17, 2004.

Yazdanfar, S.

K. D. Rao, M. A. Choma, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Lett. 28, 340 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. van Leeuwen, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe Focus Meeting on Novel Biomedical Optical Spectroscopy, Imaging, and Diagnostics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 13.

Acad. Radiol. (1)

J. K. Barton, J. B. Hoying, and C. J. Sullivan, Acad. Radiol. 9S, 52 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Signal Process. (1)

D. L. Jones and T. W. Parks, IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Signal Process. 38, 2127 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. Gemert, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Other (3)

S. Stoyanov, in Near-Infrared Application in Biotechnology, R. Raghavachari, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001), pp. 35–93.

C. Xu and S. A. Boppart, presented at the OSA Biomedical Topical Meeting, Miami, Florida, April 14–17, 2004.

T. G. van Leeuwen, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe Focus Meeting on Novel Biomedical Optical Spectroscopy, Imaging, and Diagnostics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), p. 13.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SOCT detection of the spectral centroid shift with increasing dye concentration. The dotted curve shows the peak absorption (λ=740 nm) measured by a spectrometer. Inset, spectra from the NIR dye and the titanium:sapphire laser used in this study.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

NIR dye contrast enhancement in SOCT. (a) SOCT image of a celery stalk with dye present within the vascular bundle. The color bar shows the correspondence between pseudocolor labeling and the spectral centroid shift in the image. (b) SOCT image of the same area without dye. Note that the vascular bundle region is larger since the stalk was initially more hydrated. (c) Fluorescence microscopy and (d) light microscopy images showing the vascular bundle and the surrounding collenchyma tissue.

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