Abstract

We present experimental measurements of the polarization dependence of two-photon absorption in silicon photodiodes at 1550 nm, and we offer a simple theory that explains our observations. Based on this theory, we propose and demonstrate that it is possible to construct an optical cross-correlation system that is polarization insensitive, provided that one of the two input polarization states can be controlled.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Y. Takagi, T. Kobayashi, K. Yoshibara, and S. Imamura, Opt. Lett. 17, 658 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. P. Barry, P. G. Bollond, J. M. Dudley, J. D. Harvey, and R. Leonhardt, Electron. Lett. 32, 1922 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Kikuchi, Electron. Lett. 34, 1354 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, D. A. Barrow, and E. L. Portnoi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 838 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. C. Thomsen, L. P. Barry, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, Electron. Lett. 34, 1871 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. J. Ripin, C. Chudoba, J. T. Gopinath, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, Opt. Lett. 27, 61 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. M. Roth, C. Xu, W. H. Knox, and K. Bergman, in LEOS 2001 Annual Meeting (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), Vol. 2, pp. 851–852.
  8. C. Xu, J. M. Roth, W. H. Knox, and K. Bergman, Electron. Lett. 38, 86 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. M. Roth, T. E. Murphy, and C. Xu, Opt. Lett. 27, 2076 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. C. Hutchings and B. S. Wherrett, Phys. Rev. B 49, 2418 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. D. Dvorak, W. A. Schroeder, D. R. Andersen, A. L. Smirl, and B. S. Wherrett, J. Quantum Electron. 30, 256 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. DeSalvo, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. V. Stryland, Opt. Lett. 18, 194 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. A. Schroeder, D. S. McCallum, D. R. Harken, M. D. Dvorak, D. R. Andersen, A. L. Smirl, and B. S. Wherrett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 401 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. M. Karkhanehchi, J. H. Marsh, and D. C. Hutchings, Appl. Opt. 36, 7799 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Murayama and T. Nakayama, Phys. Rev. B 52, 4986 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2003).
  17. J. D. Harvey, J. M. Dudley, B. C. Thomsen, and L. P. Barry, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper ThA1.

2002 (3)

1998 (2)

K. Kikuchi, Electron. Lett. 34, 1354 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Thomsen, L. P. Barry, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, Electron. Lett. 34, 1871 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

L. P. Barry, P. G. Bollond, J. M. Dudley, J. D. Harvey, and R. Leonhardt, Electron. Lett. 32, 1922 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1994 (3)

F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, D. A. Barrow, and E. L. Portnoi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 838 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hutchings and B. S. Wherrett, Phys. Rev. B 49, 2418 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Dvorak, W. A. Schroeder, D. R. Andersen, A. L. Smirl, and B. S. Wherrett, J. Quantum Electron. 30, 256 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

Andersen, D. R.

W. A. Schroeder, D. S. McCallum, D. R. Harken, M. D. Dvorak, D. R. Andersen, A. L. Smirl, and B. S. Wherrett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Dvorak, W. A. Schroeder, D. R. Andersen, A. L. Smirl, and B. S. Wherrett, J. Quantum Electron. 30, 256 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Angelow, G.

Barrow, D. A.

F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, D. A. Barrow, and E. L. Portnoi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 838 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barry, L. P.

B. C. Thomsen, L. P. Barry, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, Electron. Lett. 34, 1871 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Barry, P. G. Bollond, J. M. Dudley, J. D. Harvey, and R. Leonhardt, Electron. Lett. 32, 1922 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Harvey, J. M. Dudley, B. C. Thomsen, and L. P. Barry, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper ThA1.

Bergman, K.

C. Xu, J. M. Roth, W. H. Knox, and K. Bergman, Electron. Lett. 38, 86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Roth, C. Xu, W. H. Knox, and K. Bergman, in LEOS 2001 Annual Meeting (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), Vol. 2, pp. 851–852.

Bollond, P. G.

L. P. Barry, P. G. Bollond, J. M. Dudley, J. D. Harvey, and R. Leonhardt, Electron. Lett. 32, 1922 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2003).

Chudoba, C.

DeSalvo, R.

Dudley, J. M.

B. C. Thomsen, L. P. Barry, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, Electron. Lett. 34, 1871 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Barry, P. G. Bollond, J. M. Dudley, J. D. Harvey, and R. Leonhardt, Electron. Lett. 32, 1922 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Harvey, J. M. Dudley, B. C. Thomsen, and L. P. Barry, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper ThA1.

Dvorak, M. D.

W. A. Schroeder, D. S. McCallum, D. R. Harken, M. D. Dvorak, D. R. Andersen, A. L. Smirl, and B. S. Wherrett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Dvorak, W. A. Schroeder, D. R. Andersen, A. L. Smirl, and B. S. Wherrett, J. Quantum Electron. 30, 256 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gopinath, J. T.

Hagan, D. J.

Harken, D. R.

Harvey, J. D.

B. C. Thomsen, L. P. Barry, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, Electron. Lett. 34, 1871 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Barry, P. G. Bollond, J. M. Dudley, J. D. Harvey, and R. Leonhardt, Electron. Lett. 32, 1922 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Harvey, J. M. Dudley, B. C. Thomsen, and L. P. Barry, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper ThA1.

Hutchings, D. C.

Imamura, S.

Ippen, E. P.

Karkhanehchi, M. M.

Kärtner, F. X.

Kikuchi, K.

K. Kikuchi, Electron. Lett. 34, 1354 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W. H.

C. Xu, J. M. Roth, W. H. Knox, and K. Bergman, Electron. Lett. 38, 86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Roth, C. Xu, W. H. Knox, and K. Bergman, in LEOS 2001 Annual Meeting (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), Vol. 2, pp. 851–852.

Kobayashi, T.

Laughton, F. R.

F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, D. A. Barrow, and E. L. Portnoi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 838 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Leonhardt, R.

L. P. Barry, P. G. Bollond, J. M. Dudley, J. D. Harvey, and R. Leonhardt, Electron. Lett. 32, 1922 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Marsh, J. H.

M. M. Karkhanehchi, J. H. Marsh, and D. C. Hutchings, Appl. Opt. 36, 7799 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, D. A. Barrow, and E. L. Portnoi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 838 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McCallum, D. S.

Morgner, U.

Murayama, M.

M. Murayama and T. Nakayama, Phys. Rev. B 52, 4986 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, T. E.

Nakayama, T.

M. Murayama and T. Nakayama, Phys. Rev. B 52, 4986 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Portnoi, E. L.

F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, D. A. Barrow, and E. L. Portnoi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 838 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ripin, D. J.

Roth, J. M.

J. M. Roth, T. E. Murphy, and C. Xu, Opt. Lett. 27, 2076 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Xu, J. M. Roth, W. H. Knox, and K. Bergman, Electron. Lett. 38, 86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Roth, C. Xu, W. H. Knox, and K. Bergman, in LEOS 2001 Annual Meeting (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), Vol. 2, pp. 851–852.

Said, A. A.

Scheuer, V.

Schroeder, W. A.

W. A. Schroeder, D. S. McCallum, D. R. Harken, M. D. Dvorak, D. R. Andersen, A. L. Smirl, and B. S. Wherrett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Dvorak, W. A. Schroeder, D. R. Andersen, A. L. Smirl, and B. S. Wherrett, J. Quantum Electron. 30, 256 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

Smirl, A. L.

W. A. Schroeder, D. S. McCallum, D. R. Harken, M. D. Dvorak, D. R. Andersen, A. L. Smirl, and B. S. Wherrett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Dvorak, W. A. Schroeder, D. R. Andersen, A. L. Smirl, and B. S. Wherrett, J. Quantum Electron. 30, 256 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stryland, E. W. V.

Takagi, Y.

Thomsen, B. C.

B. C. Thomsen, L. P. Barry, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, Electron. Lett. 34, 1871 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Harvey, J. M. Dudley, B. C. Thomsen, and L. P. Barry, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper ThA1.

Tschudi, T.

Wherrett, B. S.

W. A. Schroeder, D. S. McCallum, D. R. Harken, M. D. Dvorak, D. R. Andersen, A. L. Smirl, and B. S. Wherrett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Dvorak, W. A. Schroeder, D. R. Andersen, A. L. Smirl, and B. S. Wherrett, J. Quantum Electron. 30, 256 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hutchings and B. S. Wherrett, Phys. Rev. B 49, 2418 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

C. Xu, J. M. Roth, W. H. Knox, and K. Bergman, Electron. Lett. 38, 86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Roth, T. E. Murphy, and C. Xu, Opt. Lett. 27, 2076 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Roth, C. Xu, W. H. Knox, and K. Bergman, in LEOS 2001 Annual Meeting (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), Vol. 2, pp. 851–852.

Yoshibara, K.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (4)

L. P. Barry, P. G. Bollond, J. M. Dudley, J. D. Harvey, and R. Leonhardt, Electron. Lett. 32, 1922 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Kikuchi, Electron. Lett. 34, 1354 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Thomsen, L. P. Barry, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, Electron. Lett. 34, 1871 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Xu, J. M. Roth, W. H. Knox, and K. Bergman, Electron. Lett. 38, 86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, D. A. Barrow, and E. L. Portnoi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 838 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. D. Dvorak, W. A. Schroeder, D. R. Andersen, A. L. Smirl, and B. S. Wherrett, J. Quantum Electron. 30, 256 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

M. Murayama and T. Nakayama, Phys. Rev. B 52, 4986 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hutchings and B. S. Wherrett, Phys. Rev. B 49, 2418 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. M. Roth, C. Xu, W. H. Knox, and K. Bergman, in LEOS 2001 Annual Meeting (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), Vol. 2, pp. 851–852.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2003).

J. D. Harvey, J. M. Dudley, B. C. Thomsen, and L. P. Barry, in Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper ThA1.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured polarization dependence of TPA for a cw optical signal at 1550 nm (a) when the direction of linear polarization is adjusted and (b) when the polarization is adjusted from circular to linear. The insets depict the corresponding points on the Poincaré sphere for each of the plots.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Example of cross-correlation measurement. The averaged photocurrent comprises a background level B and a cross-correlation signal of height C, both of which depend on the input polarization states.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup used to investigate polarization sensitivity in cross-correlation measurements based on TPA. Each arm produces a train of 300-ns rectangular pulses with a peak power of 8 mW at the detector and a repetition rate of 1 MHz. The cross correlation is measured with a silicon avalanche photodiode (APD). PCs, polarization controllers; EDFAs, erbium-doped fiber amplifiers; Atten., attenuator.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured cross-correlation functions when the fixed input polarization state is (a) linear and (b) circular.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

iTPAEt4,
iTPAτ=ηg2t38-18S32+g2t38-18S32+gtgt-τ×1+12S1S1+12S2S2,
B=K34-18S32+S32,
C=K1+12S1S1+S2S2,

Metrics