Abstract

Fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging methods, including fluorescence lifetime sensing, are being developed for noninvasive tissue diagnostics. The purpose of this study was to identify and quantify those factors affecting the accurate recovery of fluorophore lifetimes from inhomogeneous tissues in vivo. A Monte Carlo code was developed to numerically simulate time-resolved fluorescence measurements on layered epithelial tissues. Simulations were run with experimental parameters matching previously reported clinical studies in the gastrointestinal tract. The results demonstrate that variations in fluorescence decay time as large as those detected clinically between normal and premalignant tissues (2 ns) could be simulated by variations in tissue morphology or biochemistry, even when intrinsic fluorophore lifetimes were held constant.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M.-A. Mycek and B. W. Pogue, eds., Handbook of Biomedical Fluorescence (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2003).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2003 (2)

M.-A. Mycek, K. Vishwanath, B. W. Pogue, K. T. Schomacker, and N. S. Nishioka, Proc. SPIE 4958, 51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Dehghani, B. Brooksby, K. Vishwanath, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2713 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

A. Jemal, A. Thomas, T. Murray, and M. Thun, Cancer J. Clinicians 52, 23 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Vishwanath, B. W. Pogue, and M.-A. Mycek, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Mal-pica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

L. Marcu, D. Cohen, J.-M. I. Maarek, and W. S. Grundfest, Proc. SPIE 3917, 93 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M.-A. Mycek, K. Schomacker, and N. Nishioka, Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 48, 390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

B. B. Das, L. Feng, and R. R. Alfano, Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 227 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. C. C. Coremans, C. Ince, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, Biophys. J. 72, 1849 (1997).1184379
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

G. Zonios, R. Cothren, J. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. Feld, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

R. Marchesini, M. Brambilla, and E. Pignoli, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 14, 219 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, and T. F. Deutsch, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

L. Lindqvist, B. Czochralska, and I. Grigorov, Chem. Phys. Lett. 119, 494 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

D. Fujimoto, K.-Y. Akiba, and N. Nakamura, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 76, 1124 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akiba, K.-Y.

D. Fujimoto, K.-Y. Akiba, and N. Nakamura, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 76, 1124 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

B. B. Das, L. Feng, and R. R. Alfano, Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 227 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Arendt, J.

G. Zonios, R. Cothren, J. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. Feld, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boiko, I.

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Mal-pica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brambilla, M.

R. Marchesini, M. Brambilla, and E. Pignoli, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 14, 219 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brooksby, B.

H. Dehghani, B. Brooksby, K. Vishwanath, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2713 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruining, H. A.

J. M. C. C. Coremans, C. Ince, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, Biophys. J. 72, 1849 (1997).1184379
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, I. D.

I. D. Campbell and R. A. Dwek, Biological Spectroscopy (Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, Calif., 1984).

Cohen, D.

L. Marcu, D. Cohen, J.-M. I. Maarek, and W. S. Grundfest, Proc. SPIE 3917, 93 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Compton, C. C.

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, and T. F. Deutsch, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Coremans, J. M. C. C.

J. M. C. C. Coremans, C. Ince, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, Biophys. J. 72, 1849 (1997).1184379
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cothren, R.

G. Zonios, R. Cothren, J. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. Feld, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crawford, J.

G. Zonios, R. Cothren, J. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. Feld, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Czochralska, B.

L. Lindqvist, B. Czochralska, and I. Grigorov, Chem. Phys. Lett. 119, 494 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Das, B. B.

B. B. Das, L. Feng, and R. R. Alfano, Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 227 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dehghani, H.

H. Dehghani, B. Brooksby, K. Vishwanath, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2713 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deutsch, T. F.

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, and T. F. Deutsch, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Drezek, R.

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Mal-pica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dwek, R. A.

I. D. Campbell and R. A. Dwek, Biological Spectroscopy (Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, Calif., 1984).

Feld, M.

G. Zonios, R. Cothren, J. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. Feld, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, L.

B. B. Das, L. Feng, and R. R. Alfano, Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 227 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T. J.

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, and T. F. Deutsch, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Follen, M.

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Mal-pica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frisoli, J. K.

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, and T. F. Deutsch, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, D.

D. Fujimoto, K.-Y. Akiba, and N. Nakamura, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 76, 1124 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grigorov, I.

L. Lindqvist, B. Czochralska, and I. Grigorov, Chem. Phys. Lett. 119, 494 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Grundfest, W. S.

L. Marcu, D. Cohen, J.-M. I. Maarek, and W. S. Grundfest, Proc. SPIE 3917, 93 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ince, C.

J. M. C. C. Coremans, C. Ince, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, Biophys. J. 72, 1849 (1997).1184379
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jemal, A.

A. Jemal, A. Thomas, T. Murray, and M. Thun, Cancer J. Clinicians 52, 23 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lakowicz, J. R.

J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Lindqvist, L.

L. Lindqvist, B. Czochralska, and I. Grigorov, Chem. Phys. Lett. 119, 494 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Maarek, J.-M. I.

L. Marcu, D. Cohen, J.-M. I. Maarek, and W. S. Grundfest, Proc. SPIE 3917, 93 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mal-pica, A.

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Mal-pica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manoharan, R.

G. Zonios, R. Cothren, J. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. Feld, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marchesini, R.

R. Marchesini, M. Brambilla, and E. Pignoli, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 14, 219 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcu, L.

L. Marcu, D. Cohen, J.-M. I. Maarek, and W. S. Grundfest, Proc. SPIE 3917, 93 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Murray, T.

A. Jemal, A. Thomas, T. Murray, and M. Thun, Cancer J. Clinicians 52, 23 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mycek, M.-A.

M.-A. Mycek, K. Vishwanath, B. W. Pogue, K. T. Schomacker, and N. S. Nishioka, Proc. SPIE 4958, 51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Vishwanath, B. W. Pogue, and M.-A. Mycek, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-A. Mycek, K. Schomacker, and N. Nishioka, Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 48, 390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M.-A. Mycek, K. Vishwanath, K. T. Schomacker, and N. S. Nishioka, in Biomedical Topical Meetings, Vol. 38 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 11–13.

Nakamura, N.

D. Fujimoto, K.-Y. Akiba, and N. Nakamura, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 76, 1124 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishioka, N.

M.-A. Mycek, K. Schomacker, and N. Nishioka, Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 48, 390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nishioka, N. S.

M.-A. Mycek, K. Vishwanath, B. W. Pogue, K. T. Schomacker, and N. S. Nishioka, Proc. SPIE 4958, 51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, and T. F. Deutsch, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M.-A. Mycek, K. Vishwanath, K. T. Schomacker, and N. S. Nishioka, in Biomedical Topical Meetings, Vol. 38 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 11–13.

Paulsen, K. D.

H. Dehghani, B. Brooksby, K. Vishwanath, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2713 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pignoli, E.

R. Marchesini, M. Brambilla, and E. Pignoli, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 14, 219 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogue, B. W.

H. Dehghani, B. Brooksby, K. Vishwanath, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2713 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-A. Mycek, K. Vishwanath, B. W. Pogue, K. T. Schomacker, and N. S. Nishioka, Proc. SPIE 4958, 51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Vishwanath, B. W. Pogue, and M.-A. Mycek, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puppels, G. J.

J. M. C. C. Coremans, C. Ince, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, Biophys. J. 72, 1849 (1997).1184379
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Mal-pica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Richter, J. M.

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, and T. F. Deutsch, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schomacker, K.

M.-A. Mycek, K. Schomacker, and N. Nishioka, Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 48, 390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schomacker, K. T.

M.-A. Mycek, K. Vishwanath, B. W. Pogue, K. T. Schomacker, and N. S. Nishioka, Proc. SPIE 4958, 51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, and T. F. Deutsch, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M.-A. Mycek, K. Vishwanath, K. T. Schomacker, and N. S. Nishioka, in Biomedical Topical Meetings, Vol. 38 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 11–13.

Sevick-Muraca, E.

R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sokolov, K.

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Mal-pica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, A.

A. Jemal, A. Thomas, T. Murray, and M. Thun, Cancer J. Clinicians 52, 23 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thun, M.

A. Jemal, A. Thomas, T. Murray, and M. Thun, Cancer J. Clinicians 52, 23 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Utzinger, U.

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Mal-pica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

G. Zonios, R. Cothren, J. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. Feld, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vishwanath, K.

M.-A. Mycek, K. Vishwanath, B. W. Pogue, K. T. Schomacker, and N. S. Nishioka, Proc. SPIE 4958, 51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Dehghani, B. Brooksby, K. Vishwanath, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2713 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Vishwanath, B. W. Pogue, and M.-A. Mycek, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-A. Mycek, K. Vishwanath, K. T. Schomacker, and N. S. Nishioka, in Biomedical Topical Meetings, Vol. 38 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 11–13.

Wu, J.

G. Zonios, R. Cothren, J. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. Feld, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zonios, G.

G. Zonios, R. Cothren, J. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. Feld, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1)

D. Fujimoto, K.-Y. Akiba, and N. Nakamura, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 76, 1124 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophys. J. (1)

J. M. C. C. Coremans, C. Ince, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, Biophys. J. 72, 1849 (1997).1184379
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer J. Clinicians (1)

A. Jemal, A. Thomas, T. Murray, and M. Thun, Cancer J. Clinicians 52, 23 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Lindqvist, B. Czochralska, and I. Grigorov, Chem. Phys. Lett. 119, 494 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (1)

M.-A. Mycek, K. Schomacker, and N. Nishioka, Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 48, 390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

G. Zonios, R. Cothren, J. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. Feld, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Mal-pica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 385 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B (1)

R. Marchesini, M. Brambilla, and E. Pignoli, J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 14, 219 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, and T. F. Deutsch, Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

K. Vishwanath, B. W. Pogue, and M.-A. Mycek, Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3387 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. Brooksby, K. Vishwanath, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2713 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

M.-A. Mycek, K. Vishwanath, B. W. Pogue, K. T. Schomacker, and N. S. Nishioka, Proc. SPIE 4958, 51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Marcu, D. Cohen, J.-M. I. Maarek, and W. S. Grundfest, Proc. SPIE 3917, 93 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

B. B. Das, L. Feng, and R. R. Alfano, Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 227 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

M.-A. Mycek, K. Vishwanath, K. T. Schomacker, and N. S. Nishioka, in Biomedical Topical Meetings, Vol. 38 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 11–13.

M.-A. Mycek and B. W. Pogue, eds., Handbook of Biomedical Fluorescence (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2003).

J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1999).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Campbell and R. A. Dwek, Biological Spectroscopy (Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, Calif., 1984).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Representative time-resolved fluorescence decays measured in vivo (excitation at 337.1 nm, emission at 550±20 nm) for normal colon tissue and for a premalignant adenomatous polyp.5 Inset, tissue model used for numerical simulation of fluorescence decay.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized time-resolved fluorescence simulations for five tissue models (see Table 2).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Model Inputs Required for Simulationsa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameters for Simulated Tissues1-5 in Fig. 2a

Metrics