Abstract

We report the fabrication of what are believed to be the first microstructured optical fibers with uniformly oriented elliptical holes. A high degree of hole ellipticity is achieved with a simple technique that relies on hole deformation during fiber draw. Both form and stress-optic birefringence are characterized over a broad wavelength range. These measurements are in excellent agreement with numerical modeling and demonstrate a birefringence as high as 1.0×10-4 at a wavelength of 850 nm.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2003 (3)

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I. M. Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, M. C. J. Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 9, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Issa and L. Poladian, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1005 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhi, R. Guobin, L. Shuqin, and J. Shuisheng, Opt. Express 11, 1966 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. D. Fitt, K. Furusawa, T. M. Monro, C. P. Please, and D. J. Richardson, J. Eng. Math. 43, 201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

M. Qiu and S. He, Phys. Rev. B 60, 10610 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

K. Yoshida and T. Morikawa, Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 2, 285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Argyros, A.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I. M. Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, M. C. J. Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 9, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arriaga, J.

Barkou, S. E.

D. Mogilevtsev, J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, J. Opt. A 3, S141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barton, G.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I. M. Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, M. C. J. Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 9, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bassett, I. M.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I. M. Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, M. C. J. Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 9, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Bjarklev, A.

D. Mogilevtsev, J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, J. Opt. A 3, S141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bock, W. J.

M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wójcik, and W. J. Bock, presented at the 1st European Symposium on Photonic Crystals, Warsaw, Poland, April 21–25, 2002.

Broeng, J.

D. Mogilevtsev, J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, J. Opt. A 3, S141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

K. Lyytikäinen, J. Canning, J. Digweed, and J. Zagari, in Proceedings of the 2003 SBMO/IEEE MIT-S International Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2003), pp. 1001–1005.
[CrossRef]

Digweed, J.

K. Lyytikäinen, J. Canning, J. Digweed, and J. Zagari, in Proceedings of the 2003 SBMO/IEEE MIT-S International Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2003), pp. 1001–1005.
[CrossRef]

Fellew, M.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I. M. Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, M. C. J. Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 9, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fitt, A. D.

A. D. Fitt, K. Furusawa, T. M. Monro, C. P. Please, and D. J. Richardson, J. Eng. Math. 43, 201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

Furusawa, K.

A. D. Fitt, K. Furusawa, T. M. Monro, C. P. Please, and D. J. Richardson, J. Eng. Math. 43, 201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guobin, R.

He, S.

M. Qiu and S. He, Phys. Rev. B 60, 10610 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Henry, G.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I. M. Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, M. C. J. Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 9, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Issa, N. A.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I. M. Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, M. C. J. Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 9, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Issa and L. Poladian, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1005 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kawanishi, S.

Knight, J. C.

Kubota, H.

Large, M. C. J.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I. M. Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, M. C. J. Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 9, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lyytikäinen, K.

K. Lyytikäinen, J. Canning, J. Digweed, and J. Zagari, in Proceedings of the 2003 SBMO/IEEE MIT-S International Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2003), pp. 1001–1005.
[CrossRef]

Mangan, B. J.

Manos, S.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I. M. Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, M. C. J. Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 9, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martynkien, T.

M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wójcik, and W. J. Bock, presented at the 1st European Symposium on Photonic Crystals, Warsaw, Poland, April 21–25, 2002.

Mogilevtsev, D.

D. Mogilevtsev, J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, J. Opt. A 3, S141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

A. D. Fitt, K. Furusawa, T. M. Monro, C. P. Please, and D. J. Richardson, J. Eng. Math. 43, 201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Morikawa, T.

K. Yoshida and T. Morikawa, Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 2, 285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

Osgood, R. M.

Padden, W.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I. M. Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, M. C. J. Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 9, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Please, C. P.

A. D. Fitt, K. Furusawa, T. M. Monro, C. P. Please, and D. J. Richardson, J. Eng. Math. 43, 201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Poladian, L.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I. M. Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, M. C. J. Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 9, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Issa and L. Poladian, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1005 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, M.

M. Qiu and S. He, Phys. Rev. B 60, 10610 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

A. D. Fitt, K. Furusawa, T. M. Monro, C. P. Please, and D. J. Richardson, J. Eng. Math. 43, 201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

Sakoda, K.

K. Sakoda, Optical Properties of Photonic Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2001), pp. 21–23.

Shuisheng, J.

Shuqin, L.

Steel, M.

Suzuki, K.

Szpulak, M.

M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wójcik, and W. J. Bock, presented at the 1st European Symposium on Photonic Crystals, Warsaw, Poland, April 21–25, 2002.

Tanaka, M.

Urbanczyk, W.

M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wójcik, and W. J. Bock, presented at the 1st European Symposium on Photonic Crystals, Warsaw, Poland, April 21–25, 2002.

van Eijkelenborg, M. A.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I. M. Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, M. C. J. Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 9, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wójcik, J.

M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wójcik, and W. J. Bock, presented at the 1st European Symposium on Photonic Crystals, Warsaw, Poland, April 21–25, 2002.

Yoshida, K.

K. Yoshida and T. Morikawa, Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 2, 285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zagari, J.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I. M. Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, M. C. J. Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 9, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Lyytikäinen, J. Canning, J. Digweed, and J. Zagari, in Proceedings of the 2003 SBMO/IEEE MIT-S International Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2003), pp. 1001–1005.
[CrossRef]

Zhi, W.

J. Eng. Math. (1)

A. D. Fitt, K. Furusawa, T. M. Monro, C. P. Please, and D. J. Richardson, J. Eng. Math. 43, 201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. A (1)

D. Mogilevtsev, J. Broeng, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, J. Opt. A 3, S141 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. (2)

K. Yoshida and T. Morikawa, Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 2, 285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I. M. Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A. Issa, M. C. J. Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, Opt. Fiber Technol. Mater. Devices Syst. 9, 199 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Qiu and S. He, Phys. Rev. B 60, 10610 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

K. Lyytikäinen, J. Canning, J. Digweed, and J. Zagari, in Proceedings of the 2003 SBMO/IEEE MIT-S International Microwave and Optoelectronics Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2003), pp. 1001–1005.
[CrossRef]

K. Sakoda, Optical Properties of Photonic Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2001), pp. 21–23.

M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wójcik, and W. J. Bock, presented at the 1st European Symposium on Photonic Crystals, Warsaw, Poland, April 21–25, 2002.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic showing a drilled hole pattern in a PMMA preform. (b) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of resulting sleeved fiber after drawing (Λa=5.12 µm). The cleave is perpendicular to the fiber axis, and the image is taken end on to the cleave (within a few degrees).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) SEM image of the inner rings of elliptical holes (Λa=5.12 µm). (b) Comparison of deformation formula Eq. (1) (solid line) with measured dimensions (points).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example transmission spectrum. The effects of a PMMA absorption peak near 770 nm are observable.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured and numerically calculated birefringence. The stated power law for the numerical calculation is obtained from a fit with R2>0.999 in this range.

Equations (2)

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Δd˜bΛ˜b2=2.98Δd˜aΛ˜a,
Bλ=Δϕλ2πL1+Δλλk0-1-1-1,

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