Abstract

An external-cavity, actively mode-locked grating-coupled surface-emitting semiconductor laser (GCSEL) is demonstrated for the first time to the authors’ knowledge. The mode-locked oscillator generates a train of optical pulses at a 297-MHz pulse-repetition frequency. The optical pulse from the oscillator has a width of 22.6 ps and a spectral bandwidth of 0.07 nm at 975.9 nm, giving a time–bandwidth product of 0.50. In addition, amplification characteristics of a grating-coupled semiconductor optical amplifier are studied with a continuous-wave external-cavity GCSEL.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Zh. I. Alferov, V. M. Andreev, S. A. Gureevich, R. F. Kazarinov, V. R. Larionov, M. N. Mizerov, and E. L. Portnoi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 449 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Jiang, O. Smoski, C. Roychoudhuri, E. Portnoi, G. Venus, I. Gadjiev, and J. McKillop, Electron. Lett. 35, 1847 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. O. V. Smolski, J. Jiang, C. Roychoudhuri, E. L. Portnoi, G. B. Venus, and J. Bullington, Proc. SPIE 4651, 59 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Hu, A. Gubenko, G. Venus, I. Gadjiev, N. Il’inskaja, S. Nesterov, E. Portnoi, M. Dubov, and I. Khrushev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4236 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Mehuys, A. Hardy, D. F. Welch, R. G. Waarts, and R. Parke, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 342 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Evans, N. Carlson, and J. Hammer, in Surface Emitting Semiconductor Lasers and Arrays, G. Evans and J. Hammer, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1993).
  8. M. Uemukai, N. Matsumoto, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1097 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Hagberg, N. Eriksson, T. Kjellberg, and A. Larsson, Opt. Lett. 20, 180 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

Y. Hu, A. Gubenko, G. Venus, I. Gadjiev, N. Il’inskaja, S. Nesterov, E. Portnoi, M. Dubov, and I. Khrushev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

O. V. Smolski, J. Jiang, C. Roychoudhuri, E. L. Portnoi, G. B. Venus, and J. Bullington, Proc. SPIE 4651, 59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Jiang, O. Smoski, C. Roychoudhuri, E. Portnoi, G. Venus, I. Gadjiev, and J. McKillop, Electron. Lett. 35, 1847 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. Uemukai, N. Matsumoto, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1097 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

1992

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

D. Mehuys, A. Hardy, D. F. Welch, R. G. Waarts, and R. Parke, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 342 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1975

Zh. I. Alferov, V. M. Andreev, S. A. Gureevich, R. F. Kazarinov, V. R. Larionov, M. N. Mizerov, and E. L. Portnoi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 449 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Alferov, Zh. I.

Zh. I. Alferov, V. M. Andreev, S. A. Gureevich, R. F. Kazarinov, V. R. Larionov, M. N. Mizerov, and E. L. Portnoi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 449 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Alphonse, G. A.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Andreadakis, N. C.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Andreev, V. M.

Zh. I. Alferov, V. M. Andreev, S. A. Gureevich, R. F. Kazarinov, V. R. Larionov, M. N. Mizerov, and E. L. Portnoi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 449 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Bullington, J.

O. V. Smolski, J. Jiang, C. Roychoudhuri, E. L. Portnoi, G. B. Venus, and J. Bullington, Proc. SPIE 4651, 59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, N.

G. Evans, N. Carlson, and J. Hammer, in Surface Emitting Semiconductor Lasers and Arrays, G. Evans and J. Hammer, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1993).

Delfyett, P. J.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dubov, M.

Y. Hu, A. Gubenko, G. Venus, I. Gadjiev, N. Il’inskaja, S. Nesterov, E. Portnoi, M. Dubov, and I. Khrushev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eriksson, N.

M. Uemukai, N. Matsumoto, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1097 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Hagberg, N. Eriksson, T. Kjellberg, and A. Larsson, Opt. Lett. 20, 180 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, G.

G. Evans, N. Carlson, and J. Hammer, in Surface Emitting Semiconductor Lasers and Arrays, G. Evans and J. Hammer, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1993).

Florez, L. T.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gadjiev, I.

Y. Hu, A. Gubenko, G. Venus, I. Gadjiev, N. Il’inskaja, S. Nesterov, E. Portnoi, M. Dubov, and I. Khrushev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Jiang, O. Smoski, C. Roychoudhuri, E. Portnoi, G. Venus, I. Gadjiev, and J. McKillop, Electron. Lett. 35, 1847 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gmitter, T.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gubenko, A.

Y. Hu, A. Gubenko, G. Venus, I. Gadjiev, N. Il’inskaja, S. Nesterov, E. Portnoi, M. Dubov, and I. Khrushev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gureevich, S. A.

Zh. I. Alferov, V. M. Andreev, S. A. Gureevich, R. F. Kazarinov, V. R. Larionov, M. N. Mizerov, and E. L. Portnoi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 449 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Hagberg, M.

Hammer, J.

G. Evans, N. Carlson, and J. Hammer, in Surface Emitting Semiconductor Lasers and Arrays, G. Evans and J. Hammer, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1993).

Hardy, A.

D. Mehuys, A. Hardy, D. F. Welch, R. G. Waarts, and R. Parke, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 342 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Heritage, J. P.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

Y. Hu, A. Gubenko, G. Venus, I. Gadjiev, N. Il’inskaja, S. Nesterov, E. Portnoi, M. Dubov, and I. Khrushev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Il’inskaja, N.

Y. Hu, A. Gubenko, G. Venus, I. Gadjiev, N. Il’inskaja, S. Nesterov, E. Portnoi, M. Dubov, and I. Khrushev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J.

O. V. Smolski, J. Jiang, C. Roychoudhuri, E. L. Portnoi, G. B. Venus, and J. Bullington, Proc. SPIE 4651, 59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Jiang, O. Smoski, C. Roychoudhuri, E. Portnoi, G. Venus, I. Gadjiev, and J. McKillop, Electron. Lett. 35, 1847 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kazarinov, R. F.

Zh. I. Alferov, V. M. Andreev, S. A. Gureevich, R. F. Kazarinov, V. R. Larionov, M. N. Mizerov, and E. L. Portnoi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 449 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Khrushev, I.

Y. Hu, A. Gubenko, G. Venus, I. Gadjiev, N. Il’inskaja, S. Nesterov, E. Portnoi, M. Dubov, and I. Khrushev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kjellberg, T.

Larionov, V. R.

Zh. I. Alferov, V. M. Andreev, S. A. Gureevich, R. F. Kazarinov, V. R. Larionov, M. N. Mizerov, and E. L. Portnoi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 449 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, A.

M. Uemukai, N. Matsumoto, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1097 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Hagberg, N. Eriksson, T. Kjellberg, and A. Larsson, Opt. Lett. 20, 180 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsumoto, N.

M. Uemukai, N. Matsumoto, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1097 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McKillop, J.

J. Jiang, O. Smoski, C. Roychoudhuri, E. Portnoi, G. Venus, I. Gadjiev, and J. McKillop, Electron. Lett. 35, 1847 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mehuys, D.

D. Mehuys, A. Hardy, D. F. Welch, R. G. Waarts, and R. Parke, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 342 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mizerov, M. N.

Zh. I. Alferov, V. M. Andreev, S. A. Gureevich, R. F. Kazarinov, V. R. Larionov, M. N. Mizerov, and E. L. Portnoi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 449 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Nesterov, S.

Y. Hu, A. Gubenko, G. Venus, I. Gadjiev, N. Il’inskaja, S. Nesterov, E. Portnoi, M. Dubov, and I. Khrushev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, H.

M. Uemukai, N. Matsumoto, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1097 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Parke, R.

D. Mehuys, A. Hardy, D. F. Welch, R. G. Waarts, and R. Parke, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 342 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Portnoi, E.

Y. Hu, A. Gubenko, G. Venus, I. Gadjiev, N. Il’inskaja, S. Nesterov, E. Portnoi, M. Dubov, and I. Khrushev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Jiang, O. Smoski, C. Roychoudhuri, E. Portnoi, G. Venus, I. Gadjiev, and J. McKillop, Electron. Lett. 35, 1847 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Portnoi, E. L.

O. V. Smolski, J. Jiang, C. Roychoudhuri, E. L. Portnoi, G. B. Venus, and J. Bullington, Proc. SPIE 4651, 59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zh. I. Alferov, V. M. Andreev, S. A. Gureevich, R. F. Kazarinov, V. R. Larionov, M. N. Mizerov, and E. L. Portnoi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 449 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Roychoudhuri, C.

O. V. Smolski, J. Jiang, C. Roychoudhuri, E. L. Portnoi, G. B. Venus, and J. Bullington, Proc. SPIE 4651, 59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Jiang, O. Smoski, C. Roychoudhuri, E. Portnoi, G. Venus, I. Gadjiev, and J. McKillop, Electron. Lett. 35, 1847 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smolski, O. V.

O. V. Smolski, J. Jiang, C. Roychoudhuri, E. L. Portnoi, G. B. Venus, and J. Bullington, Proc. SPIE 4651, 59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smoski, O.

J. Jiang, O. Smoski, C. Roychoudhuri, E. Portnoi, G. Venus, I. Gadjiev, and J. McKillop, Electron. Lett. 35, 1847 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stoffel, N.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Suhara, T.

M. Uemukai, N. Matsumoto, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1097 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Uemukai, M.

M. Uemukai, N. Matsumoto, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1097 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Venus, G.

Y. Hu, A. Gubenko, G. Venus, I. Gadjiev, N. Il’inskaja, S. Nesterov, E. Portnoi, M. Dubov, and I. Khrushev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Jiang, O. Smoski, C. Roychoudhuri, E. Portnoi, G. Venus, I. Gadjiev, and J. McKillop, Electron. Lett. 35, 1847 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Venus, G. B.

O. V. Smolski, J. Jiang, C. Roychoudhuri, E. L. Portnoi, G. B. Venus, and J. Bullington, Proc. SPIE 4651, 59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Waarts, R. G.

D. Mehuys, A. Hardy, D. F. Welch, R. G. Waarts, and R. Parke, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 342 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Welch, D. F.

D. Mehuys, A. Hardy, D. F. Welch, R. G. Waarts, and R. Parke, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 342 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Hu, A. Gubenko, G. Venus, I. Gadjiev, N. Il’inskaja, S. Nesterov, E. Portnoi, M. Dubov, and I. Khrushev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

J. Jiang, O. Smoski, C. Roychoudhuri, E. Portnoi, G. Venus, I. Gadjiev, and J. McKillop, Electron. Lett. 35, 1847 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

P. J. Delfyett, L. T. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. C. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. A. Alphonse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2203 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zh. I. Alferov, V. M. Andreev, S. A. Gureevich, R. F. Kazarinov, V. R. Larionov, M. N. Mizerov, and E. L. Portnoi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 449 (1975).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

D. Mehuys, A. Hardy, D. F. Welch, R. G. Waarts, and R. Parke, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 342 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Uemukai, N. Matsumoto, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, N. Eriksson, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1097 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

O. V. Smolski, J. Jiang, C. Roychoudhuri, E. L. Portnoi, G. B. Venus, and J. Bullington, Proc. SPIE 4651, 59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. Evans, N. Carlson, and J. Hammer, in Surface Emitting Semiconductor Lasers and Arrays, G. Evans and J. Hammer, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1993).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

GCSEL spontaneous-emission characteristics: (a) three output ports (grating port, P1; substrate port, P2; and cleaved facet port, P3), (b) optical spectrum from a cleaved facet (P3) at I=100 mA, (c) LI curve (from grating port P1 and substrate port P2).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) External-cavity setup with a GCSEL. (b) LI curve from the output port. (c) Spectrum modulation caused by a residual reflection from the substrate. Spontaneous-emission spectrum from grating port P1 at 200 mA by use of a ball-lensed multimode fiber (core diameter, 100 µm). (d) Discrete wavelength tuning characteristics of a continuously operated external cavity with a GCSEL.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Optical pulse from an actively mode-locked GCSEL with an external cavity in a digital sampling oscilloscope and (b) optical spectrum of the mode-locked GCSEL with an external cavity. (c) Far-field beam pattern from the substrate output port of an actively mode-locked GCSEL with an external cavity (parallel and normal to the device’s pn junction).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Experimental setup for amplification with a GCSOA. (b) Output signal power versus input power at two quasi-cw peak rates of current injection (2 A and 4 A). (c), (d) Optical spectra from the oscillator and the amplifier, respectively, without (darker curves) and with (lighter curves) injection.

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