Abstract

We report the first realization, to our knowledge, of an optical dipole trap inside the active resonator of a laser. The concept, which is demonstrated with a CO2 laser (λ=10.6 µm), combines the advantages of optical power enhancement (up to 1.3-kW peak power) with the intrinsic stability of laser intensity as a result of the feedback of the active laser medium. Two kinds of trapping geometries are presented: a Gaussian trap in a transverse TEM00 mode and a boxlike transverse confinement in a superposition of transverse modes. In addition, longitudinal superlattices are created by two-frequency operation of the laser. Transfer efficiencies of up to 50% from a cesium magneto-optical trap are achieved. Storage times (τ=0.3 s) are mainly limited by the background gas pressure. Possible sources of additional loss of atoms are discussed.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Chu, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, and A. Cable, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 314 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and Yu. B. Ovchninnikov, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 95 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Friedman, A. Kaplan, and N. Davidson, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 99 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Chin, V. Vuletić, A. J. Kerman, and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2717 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. Khaykovich, N. Friedman, S. Baluschev, D. Fathi, and N. Davidson, Europhys. Lett. 50, 454 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. W. H. Pinkse, T. Fischer, P. Maunz, and G. Rempe, Nature 404, 365 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. D. Barrett, J. A. Sauer, and M. S. Chapman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 010404 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. R. Granade, M. E. Gehm, K. M. O’Hara, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 120405 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Jochim, M. Bartenstein, A. Altmeyer, G. Hendl, S. Riedl, C. Chin, J. Hecker Derschlag, and R. Grim, Science, November13, 2003 (10.1126/science.1093280).
  10. A. Mosk, S. Jochim, H. Moritz, Th. Elsässer, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemüller, Opt. Lett. 26, 1837 (2001), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. A. Savard, K. M. O’Hara, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. A 56, R1095 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Takekoshi and R. Knize, Opt. Lett. 21, 77 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Engler, T. Weber, M. Mudrich, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemüller, Phys. Rev. A 62, R031402 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. J. Witteman, The CO2 Laser (Springer, Heidelberg, 1987).

2003 (1)

S. Jochim, M. Bartenstein, A. Altmeyer, G. Hendl, S. Riedl, C. Chin, J. Hecker Derschlag, and R. Grim, Science, November13, 2003 (10.1126/science.1093280).

2002 (2)

N. Friedman, A. Kaplan, and N. Davidson, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 99 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Granade, M. E. Gehm, K. M. O’Hara, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 120405 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

2000 (5)

H. Engler, T. Weber, M. Mudrich, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemüller, Phys. Rev. A 62, R031402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and Yu. B. Ovchninnikov, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Chin, V. Vuletić, A. J. Kerman, and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2717 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Khaykovich, N. Friedman, S. Baluschev, D. Fathi, and N. Davidson, Europhys. Lett. 50, 454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. W. H. Pinkse, T. Fischer, P. Maunz, and G. Rempe, Nature 404, 365 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

T. A. Savard, K. M. O’Hara, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. A 56, R1095 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1990 (1)

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

S. Chu, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, and A. Cable, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 314 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altmeyer, A.

S. Jochim, M. Bartenstein, A. Altmeyer, G. Hendl, S. Riedl, C. Chin, J. Hecker Derschlag, and R. Grim, Science, November13, 2003 (10.1126/science.1093280).

Ashkin, A.

S. Chu, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, and A. Cable, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 314 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baluschev, S.

L. Khaykovich, N. Friedman, S. Baluschev, D. Fathi, and N. Davidson, Europhys. Lett. 50, 454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, M. D.

M. D. Barrett, J. A. Sauer, and M. S. Chapman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 010404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bartenstein, M.

S. Jochim, M. Bartenstein, A. Altmeyer, G. Hendl, S. Riedl, C. Chin, J. Hecker Derschlag, and R. Grim, Science, November13, 2003 (10.1126/science.1093280).

Bjorkholm, J. E.

S. Chu, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, and A. Cable, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 314 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

S. Chu, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, and A. Cable, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 314 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chapman, M. S.

M. D. Barrett, J. A. Sauer, and M. S. Chapman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 010404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chin, C.

S. Jochim, M. Bartenstein, A. Altmeyer, G. Hendl, S. Riedl, C. Chin, J. Hecker Derschlag, and R. Grim, Science, November13, 2003 (10.1126/science.1093280).

C. Chin, V. Vuletić, A. J. Kerman, and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2717 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

C. Chin, V. Vuletić, A. J. Kerman, and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2717 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chu, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, and A. Cable, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 314 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davidson, N.

N. Friedman, A. Kaplan, and N. Davidson, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 99 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Khaykovich, N. Friedman, S. Baluschev, D. Fathi, and N. Davidson, Europhys. Lett. 50, 454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Elsässer, Th.

Engler, H.

H. Engler, T. Weber, M. Mudrich, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemüller, Phys. Rev. A 62, R031402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fathi, D.

L. Khaykovich, N. Friedman, S. Baluschev, D. Fathi, and N. Davidson, Europhys. Lett. 50, 454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, T.

P. W. H. Pinkse, T. Fischer, P. Maunz, and G. Rempe, Nature 404, 365 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friedman, N.

N. Friedman, A. Kaplan, and N. Davidson, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 99 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Khaykovich, N. Friedman, S. Baluschev, D. Fathi, and N. Davidson, Europhys. Lett. 50, 454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gehm, M. E.

S. R. Granade, M. E. Gehm, K. M. O’Hara, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 120405 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Granade, S. R.

S. R. Granade, M. E. Gehm, K. M. O’Hara, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 120405 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grim, R.

S. Jochim, M. Bartenstein, A. Altmeyer, G. Hendl, S. Riedl, C. Chin, J. Hecker Derschlag, and R. Grim, Science, November13, 2003 (10.1126/science.1093280).

Grimm, R.

A. Mosk, S. Jochim, H. Moritz, Th. Elsässer, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemüller, Opt. Lett. 26, 1837 (2001), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

H. Engler, T. Weber, M. Mudrich, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemüller, Phys. Rev. A 62, R031402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and Yu. B. Ovchninnikov, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hecker Derschlag, J.

S. Jochim, M. Bartenstein, A. Altmeyer, G. Hendl, S. Riedl, C. Chin, J. Hecker Derschlag, and R. Grim, Science, November13, 2003 (10.1126/science.1093280).

Hendl, G.

S. Jochim, M. Bartenstein, A. Altmeyer, G. Hendl, S. Riedl, C. Chin, J. Hecker Derschlag, and R. Grim, Science, November13, 2003 (10.1126/science.1093280).

Jochim, S.

S. Jochim, M. Bartenstein, A. Altmeyer, G. Hendl, S. Riedl, C. Chin, J. Hecker Derschlag, and R. Grim, Science, November13, 2003 (10.1126/science.1093280).

A. Mosk, S. Jochim, H. Moritz, Th. Elsässer, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemüller, Opt. Lett. 26, 1837 (2001), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, A.

N. Friedman, A. Kaplan, and N. Davidson, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 99 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kerman, A. J.

C. Chin, V. Vuletić, A. J. Kerman, and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2717 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khaykovich, L.

L. Khaykovich, N. Friedman, S. Baluschev, D. Fathi, and N. Davidson, Europhys. Lett. 50, 454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Knize, R.

Maunz, P.

P. W. H. Pinkse, T. Fischer, P. Maunz, and G. Rempe, Nature 404, 365 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monroe, C.

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moritz, H.

Mosk, A.

Mudrich, M.

H. Engler, T. Weber, M. Mudrich, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemüller, Phys. Rev. A 62, R031402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O’Hara, K. M.

S. R. Granade, M. E. Gehm, K. M. O’Hara, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 120405 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Savard, K. M. O’Hara, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. A 56, R1095 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ovchninnikov, Yu. B.

R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and Yu. B. Ovchninnikov, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pinkse, P. W. H.

P. W. H. Pinkse, T. Fischer, P. Maunz, and G. Rempe, Nature 404, 365 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rempe, G.

P. W. H. Pinkse, T. Fischer, P. Maunz, and G. Rempe, Nature 404, 365 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riedl, S.

S. Jochim, M. Bartenstein, A. Altmeyer, G. Hendl, S. Riedl, C. Chin, J. Hecker Derschlag, and R. Grim, Science, November13, 2003 (10.1126/science.1093280).

Robinson, H.

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauer, J. A.

M. D. Barrett, J. A. Sauer, and M. S. Chapman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 010404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Savard, T. A.

T. A. Savard, K. M. O’Hara, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. A 56, R1095 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Swann, W.

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takekoshi, T.

Thomas, J. E.

S. R. Granade, M. E. Gehm, K. M. O’Hara, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 120405 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Savard, K. M. O’Hara, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. A 56, R1095 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vuletic, V.

C. Chin, V. Vuletić, A. J. Kerman, and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2717 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, T.

H. Engler, T. Weber, M. Mudrich, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemüller, Phys. Rev. A 62, R031402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weidemüller, M.

A. Mosk, S. Jochim, H. Moritz, Th. Elsässer, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemüller, Opt. Lett. 26, 1837 (2001), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

H. Engler, T. Weber, M. Mudrich, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemüller, Phys. Rev. A 62, R031402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and Yu. B. Ovchninnikov, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wieman, C.

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witteman, W. J.

W. J. Witteman, The CO2 Laser (Springer, Heidelberg, 1987).

Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (2)

R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and Yu. B. Ovchninnikov, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Friedman, A. Kaplan, and N. Davidson, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 99 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

L. Khaykovich, N. Friedman, S. Baluschev, D. Fathi, and N. Davidson, Europhys. Lett. 50, 454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

P. W. H. Pinkse, T. Fischer, P. Maunz, and G. Rempe, Nature 404, 365 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

H. Engler, T. Weber, M. Mudrich, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemüller, Phys. Rev. A 62, R031402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Savard, K. M. O’Hara, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. A 56, R1095 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

C. Chin, V. Vuletić, A. J. Kerman, and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2717 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Barrett, J. A. Sauer, and M. S. Chapman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 010404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Granade, M. E. Gehm, K. M. O’Hara, and J. E. Thomas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 120405 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chu, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, and A. Cable, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 314 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

S. Jochim, M. Bartenstein, A. Altmeyer, G. Hendl, S. Riedl, C. Chin, J. Hecker Derschlag, and R. Grim, Science, November13, 2003 (10.1126/science.1093280).

Other (1)

W. J. Witteman, The CO2 Laser (Springer, Heidelberg, 1987).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic outline of the resonator consisting of mirrors (high reflector HR and output coupler OC), lenses L1 and L2, iris aperture A, and windows W1–W4, which close up the discharge tube and the vacuum chamber. Spatial dimensions along the bottom are in millimeters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Intensity distribution of the outcoupled light. The outcoupled laser beam is expanded by a lens (focal length of 100 mm) and detected with heat-sensitive foil. Left image, transverse multimode operation with 1.3-kW peak power. Right image, TEM00 mode achieved by closing iris aperture A to a diameter of 5 mm. (b) Relative change in MOT fluorescence signal versus vertical displacement of the atom cloud. Solid curve, fit to the data.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption images of the Gauss-mode trap. (a) TEM00 standing-wave trap at λ=10.6 µm. (b) Superlattice standing-wave trap created by interference of two TEM00 fields at λ=10.6 µm and λ=9.2 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporal evolution of the number of trapped atoms. Solid curve, fit to a double exponential decay with decay constants τ1=63±8 ms and τ2=350 ms. Inset, fluorescence images of the transfer process. The untrapped atoms fall down because of gravity, whereas the stored atoms remain in the dipole trap.

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