Abstract

We propose a test method with which to measure the longitudinal distribution of Raman-gain characteristics in connected optical fibers. We describe a technique for obtaining the pump-loss distribution, knowledge of which is necessary for deriving the Raman-gain efficiency distribution, by the bidirectional measurement of Raman amplification. Based on this technique, we performed experiments and demonstrated that the Raman-gain efficiency distribution can be evaluated with the same equipment.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. Takachio, H. Suzuki, H. Masuda, and M. Koga, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. PD9.1–PD9.3.
  2. H. Nakamoto, T. Tanaka, N. Shimojoh, T. Naito, I. Yokota, A. Sugiyama, T. Ueki, and M. Suyama, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2001 (OFC 2001), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper TuF1.
  3. P. Kim, J. Park, J. Park, and N. Park, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2002 (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper ThB5.
  4. T. Hoshida, T. Terahara, and H. Onaka, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2001 (OFC 2001), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper MI4.
  5. S. Gray, in Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements 2000, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 953, 151 (2000).
  6. K. Toge, K. Hogari, and T. Horiguchi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 974 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. H. Stolen, in Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements 2000, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 953, 139 (2000).
  8. H. Izumita, S. Furukawa, Y. Koyamada, and I. Sankawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 201 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

2002

K. Toge, K. Hogari, and T. Horiguchi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 974 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

R. H. Stolen, in Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements 2000, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 953, 139 (2000).

S. Gray, in Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements 2000, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 953, 151 (2000).

1992

H. Izumita, S. Furukawa, Y. Koyamada, and I. Sankawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 201 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, S.

H. Izumita, S. Furukawa, Y. Koyamada, and I. Sankawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 201 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gray, S.

S. Gray, in Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements 2000, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 953, 151 (2000).

Hogari, K.

K. Toge, K. Hogari, and T. Horiguchi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 974 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Horiguchi, T.

K. Toge, K. Hogari, and T. Horiguchi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 974 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hoshida, T.

T. Hoshida, T. Terahara, and H. Onaka, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2001 (OFC 2001), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper MI4.

Izumita, H.

H. Izumita, S. Furukawa, Y. Koyamada, and I. Sankawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 201 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kim, P.

P. Kim, J. Park, J. Park, and N. Park, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2002 (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper ThB5.

Koga, M.

N. Takachio, H. Suzuki, H. Masuda, and M. Koga, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. PD9.1–PD9.3.

Koyamada, Y.

H. Izumita, S. Furukawa, Y. Koyamada, and I. Sankawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 201 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, H.

N. Takachio, H. Suzuki, H. Masuda, and M. Koga, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. PD9.1–PD9.3.

Naito, T.

H. Nakamoto, T. Tanaka, N. Shimojoh, T. Naito, I. Yokota, A. Sugiyama, T. Ueki, and M. Suyama, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2001 (OFC 2001), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper TuF1.

Nakamoto, H.

H. Nakamoto, T. Tanaka, N. Shimojoh, T. Naito, I. Yokota, A. Sugiyama, T. Ueki, and M. Suyama, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2001 (OFC 2001), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper TuF1.

Onaka, H.

T. Hoshida, T. Terahara, and H. Onaka, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2001 (OFC 2001), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper MI4.

Park, J.

P. Kim, J. Park, J. Park, and N. Park, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2002 (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper ThB5.

P. Kim, J. Park, J. Park, and N. Park, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2002 (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper ThB5.

Park, N.

P. Kim, J. Park, J. Park, and N. Park, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2002 (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper ThB5.

Sankawa, I.

H. Izumita, S. Furukawa, Y. Koyamada, and I. Sankawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 201 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shimojoh, N.

H. Nakamoto, T. Tanaka, N. Shimojoh, T. Naito, I. Yokota, A. Sugiyama, T. Ueki, and M. Suyama, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2001 (OFC 2001), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper TuF1.

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen, in Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements 2000, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 953, 139 (2000).

Sugiyama, A.

H. Nakamoto, T. Tanaka, N. Shimojoh, T. Naito, I. Yokota, A. Sugiyama, T. Ueki, and M. Suyama, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2001 (OFC 2001), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper TuF1.

Suyama, M.

H. Nakamoto, T. Tanaka, N. Shimojoh, T. Naito, I. Yokota, A. Sugiyama, T. Ueki, and M. Suyama, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2001 (OFC 2001), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper TuF1.

Suzuki, H.

N. Takachio, H. Suzuki, H. Masuda, and M. Koga, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. PD9.1–PD9.3.

Takachio, N.

N. Takachio, H. Suzuki, H. Masuda, and M. Koga, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. PD9.1–PD9.3.

Tanaka, T.

H. Nakamoto, T. Tanaka, N. Shimojoh, T. Naito, I. Yokota, A. Sugiyama, T. Ueki, and M. Suyama, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2001 (OFC 2001), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper TuF1.

Terahara, T.

T. Hoshida, T. Terahara, and H. Onaka, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2001 (OFC 2001), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper MI4.

Toge, K.

K. Toge, K. Hogari, and T. Horiguchi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 974 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ueki, T.

H. Nakamoto, T. Tanaka, N. Shimojoh, T. Naito, I. Yokota, A. Sugiyama, T. Ueki, and M. Suyama, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2001 (OFC 2001), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper TuF1.

Yokota, I.

H. Nakamoto, T. Tanaka, N. Shimojoh, T. Naito, I. Yokota, A. Sugiyama, T. Ueki, and M. Suyama, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2001 (OFC 2001), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper TuF1.

1999 OSA Technical Digest Series

N. Takachio, H. Suzuki, H. Masuda, and M. Koga, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. PD9.1–PD9.3.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

K. Toge, K. Hogari, and T. Horiguchi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 974 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

H. Izumita, S. Furukawa, Y. Koyamada, and I. Sankawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 201 (1992).
[CrossRef]

OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series

P. Kim, J. Park, J. Park, and N. Park, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2002 (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper ThB5.

T. Hoshida, T. Terahara, and H. Onaka, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2001 (OFC 2001), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper MI4.

OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series

H. Nakamoto, T. Tanaka, N. Shimojoh, T. Naito, I. Yokota, A. Sugiyama, T. Ueki, and M. Suyama, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2001 (OFC 2001), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper TuF1.

Other

S. Gray, in Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements 2000, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 953, 151 (2000).

R. H. Stolen, in Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements 2000, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 953, 139 (2000).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the measurement apparatus.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Waveforms of the amplified powers obtained from bidirectional measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical loss at the wavelength of the pump power and the Raman-gain efficiency distribution.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Pdz=Pcon+Pampz,
Pcon=PCWLexp-0LαλCWdZCλCW,Pampz=PconγzPp0exp-0zαλpdZvT2,
PampRz=PconRγL-zPpR0×exp-0zαλpdZvT2.
PampzPampRL-z=k exp-20zαλpdZ,

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