Abstract

We report beam-coupling measurements of undoped nematic planar cells, for which the surface-induced photorefractive effect (SIPRE) has been confirmed to be due to photoelectric interface activation. We show that the energy transfer strongly depends on experimental geometry. Diffraction efficiency and beam-coupling analyses suggest that the unusual local and (or) nonlocal behavior can be ascribed to an additional in-phase-modulated longitudinal electric field component, unaccountable by standard photorefractivity. We consider a simple charge distribution model of the SIPRE, which produces a space–charge field having two orthogonal modulated components, in phase and π/2 out of phase. Through the liquid crystal’s electric response, the exploited geometries verify the presence of the two components.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, JETP 78, 875 (1994), and references therein.
  2. I. C. Khoo, Opt. Lett. 20, 2137 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. P. Wiederrecht, Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 31, 139 (2001), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 168 (2002), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Kogelnik, Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, Phys. Rev. E 55, 1035 (1997), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Zhang, V. Ostroverkhov, K. D. Singer, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, Opt. Lett. 25, 414 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9116 (2003), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. N. Israelachvili, Intermolecular and Surface Forces (Academic, London, 1992).
  10. G. Zhang, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1709 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (1)

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9116 (2003), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 168 (2002), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. P. Wiederrecht, Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 31, 139 (2001), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1997 (1)

G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, Phys. Rev. E 55, 1035 (1997), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, JETP 78, 875 (1994), and references therein.

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Cipparrone, G.

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9116 (2003), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 168 (2002), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

G. Zhang, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1709 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Israelachvili, J. N.

J. N. Israelachvili, Intermolecular and Surface Forces (Academic, London, 1992).

Khoo, I. C.

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Montemezzani, G.

G. Zhang, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1709 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, Phys. Rev. E 55, 1035 (1997), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Ostroverkhov, V.

Pagliusi, P.

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9116 (2003), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 168 (2002), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Reshetnyak, V.

Reznikov, Yu.

Rudenko, E. V.

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, JETP 78, 875 (1994), and references therein.

Singer, K. D.

Sukhov, A. V.

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, JETP 78, 875 (1994), and references therein.

Wiederrecht, G. P.

G. P. Wiederrecht, Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 31, 139 (2001), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Zgonik, M.

G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, Phys. Rev. E 55, 1035 (1997), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

G. Zhang, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1709 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (1)

G. P. Wiederrecht, Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 31, 139 (2001), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 168 (2002), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Bell. Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9116 (2003), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

G. Zhang, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1709 (2000).
[CrossRef]

JETP (1)

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, JETP 78, 875 (1994), and references therein.

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

G. Montemezzani and M. Zgonik, Phys. Rev. E 55, 1035 (1997), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. N. Israelachvili, Intermolecular and Surface Forces (Academic, London, 1992).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangements for wave-mixing investigations. The cell optical axis is (a) parallel and (b) perpendicular to the grating vector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sum I+ and difference I- of the two transmitted pump beams versus the sample displacement along the grating vector. (a) and (b), Arrangements in Figs. 1(a) and 1(b), respectively.

Equations (2)

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σ+z=-d/2+ξ=σ0, σ-z=d/2-ξ=-σ01+cosqx/2,
Ex=-A sinhqd/2+zsinqx, Ez=B+A coshqd/2+zcosqx,

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