Abstract

Polarization holographic gratings in sp configuration are written at 488 nm in photorefractive organic–inorganic films based on SiO2. The films, prepared by a solgel technique, contain Disperse Red 1, carbazole units, and 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone. The gratings are characterized by their diffraction efficiency for a 632.8-nm probe. The polarization gratings act as a half-wave plate, and the diffraction efficiency is independent of the polarization direction of the probe.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Huff, in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, E. W. van Stryland, D. R. Williams, and W. L. Wolfe, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. 2, pp. 23.1–23.31.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. P. A. Blanche, P. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jerome, Opt. Commun. 185, 1 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Birabassov and T. V. Galstian, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1423 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, and M. Ivanov, Appl. Opt. 35, 3835 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Raschellà, I.-G. Marino, P. P. Lottici, D. Bersani, A. Lorenzi, and A. Montenero, Proc. SPIE 5123, 120 (2003).
  8. I.-G. Marino, D. Bersani, and P. P. Lottici, Opt. Mater. 15, 175 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Dumont, S. Hosotte, G. Froc, and Z. Sekkat, Proc. SPIE 2042, 2 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Natansohn, S. Xie, and P. Rochon, Macromolecules 25, 5531 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (1)

R. Raschellà, I.-G. Marino, P. P. Lottici, D. Bersani, A. Lorenzi, and A. Montenero, Proc. SPIE 5123, 120 (2003).

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

I.-G. Marino, D. Bersani, and P. P. Lottici, Opt. Mater. 15, 175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Blanche, P. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jerome, Opt. Commun. 185, 1 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

L. Huff, in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, E. W. van Stryland, D. R. Williams, and W. L. Wolfe, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. 2, pp. 23.1–23.31.

1994 (1)

M. Dumont, S. Hosotte, G. Froc, and Z. Sekkat, Proc. SPIE 2042, 2 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. Natansohn, S. Xie, and P. Rochon, Macromolecules 25, 5531 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

Bersani, D.

R. Raschellà, I.-G. Marino, P. P. Lottici, D. Bersani, A. Lorenzi, and A. Montenero, Proc. SPIE 5123, 120 (2003).

I.-G. Marino, D. Bersani, and P. P. Lottici, Opt. Mater. 15, 175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Birabassov, R.

Blanche, P. A.

P. A. Blanche, P. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jerome, Opt. Commun. 185, 1 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dubois, P.

P. A. Blanche, P. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jerome, Opt. Commun. 185, 1 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dumont, M.

M. Dumont, S. Hosotte, G. Froc, and Z. Sekkat, Proc. SPIE 2042, 2 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Froc, G.

M. Dumont, S. Hosotte, G. Froc, and Z. Sekkat, Proc. SPIE 2042, 2 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Galstian, T. V.

Hosotte, S.

M. Dumont, S. Hosotte, G. Froc, and Z. Sekkat, Proc. SPIE 2042, 2 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Huff, L.

L. Huff, in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, E. W. van Stryland, D. R. Williams, and W. L. Wolfe, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. 2, pp. 23.1–23.31.

Ivanov, M.

Jerome, R.

P. A. Blanche, P. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jerome, Opt. Commun. 185, 1 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, P. C.

P. A. Blanche, P. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jerome, Opt. Commun. 185, 1 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lorenzi, A.

R. Raschellà, I.-G. Marino, P. P. Lottici, D. Bersani, A. Lorenzi, and A. Montenero, Proc. SPIE 5123, 120 (2003).

Lottici, P. P.

R. Raschellà, I.-G. Marino, P. P. Lottici, D. Bersani, A. Lorenzi, and A. Montenero, Proc. SPIE 5123, 120 (2003).

I.-G. Marino, D. Bersani, and P. P. Lottici, Opt. Mater. 15, 175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maertens, C.

P. A. Blanche, P. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jerome, Opt. Commun. 185, 1 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Marino, I.-G.

R. Raschellà, I.-G. Marino, P. P. Lottici, D. Bersani, A. Lorenzi, and A. Montenero, Proc. SPIE 5123, 120 (2003).

I.-G. Marino, D. Bersani, and P. P. Lottici, Opt. Mater. 15, 175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Montenero, A.

R. Raschellà, I.-G. Marino, P. P. Lottici, D. Bersani, A. Lorenzi, and A. Montenero, Proc. SPIE 5123, 120 (2003).

Natansohn, A.

A. Natansohn, S. Xie, and P. Rochon, Macromolecules 25, 5531 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nikolova, L.

Nokolova, L.

Raschellà, R.

R. Raschellà, I.-G. Marino, P. P. Lottici, D. Bersani, A. Lorenzi, and A. Montenero, Proc. SPIE 5123, 120 (2003).

Rochon, P.

A. Natansohn, S. Xie, and P. Rochon, Macromolecules 25, 5531 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sekkat, Z.

M. Dumont, S. Hosotte, G. Froc, and Z. Sekkat, Proc. SPIE 2042, 2 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Todorov, T.

Tomova, N.

Xie, S.

A. Natansohn, S. Xie, and P. Rochon, Macromolecules 25, 5531 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Macromolecules (1)

A. Natansohn, S. Xie, and P. Rochon, Macromolecules 25, 5531 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. A. Blanche, P. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jerome, Opt. Commun. 185, 1 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. (1)

I.-G. Marino, D. Bersani, and P. P. Lottici, Opt. Mater. 15, 175 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. Raschellà, I.-G. Marino, P. P. Lottici, D. Bersani, A. Lorenzi, and A. Montenero, Proc. SPIE 5123, 120 (2003).

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Dumont, S. Hosotte, G. Froc, and Z. Sekkat, Proc. SPIE 2042, 2 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

L. Huff, in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, E. W. van Stryland, D. R. Williams, and W. L. Wolfe, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. 2, pp. 23.1–23.31.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photoinduced birefringence. At t=30 s the pump beam is turned on; at t=120 s it is turned off.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photoinduced birefringence versus pump intensity for different polarization states of the pump. For an elliptically polarized pump the eccentricity e is indicated, and an equivalent intensity has been calculated according to relation (1). The linear fit has a correlation coefficient of R2=0.93.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polarization states given by two interfering beams that are s and p polarized. Λ is the grating spacing, and δ is the phase shift between the two beams.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup for polarization grating detection. Each writing beam has an intensity of 0.3 mW/mm2 and an incidence angle of ±11°. The writing time is 2 min, and the relaxation time is 5 min. The intensity of the probe beam is low enough that it does not influence the grating. Sh, shutters; P, polarizers; BS, beam splitter; M, mirrors; R, λ/2 retarder; S, sample; D, detecting diodes for the zeroth (D0) and first (D1) orders of diffraction.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temporal behavior of the diffraction efficiencies for an s-polarized (crosses) and a p-polarized (dots) probe beam. At time t=30 s the writing laser beams are turned on; at time t=150 s they are turned off.

Equations (6)

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Ipa2-b2,
Δn=λprobeπd sin-1I/It1/2,
E=2I0cosδ/2i sinδ/2,
nx=n¯x+Δnx/200-Δnx/2,
T1=J12πdLI0/λprobe100-1,
Ediff=J12πdLI0/λprobecos β-sin β,

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