A circular Dammann grating that can produce circular equal intensities at various orders in the far field is described. A set of parameters such as order, circular number, uniformity, and diffraction efficiency has been defined to describe the novel diffractive phase elements. Numerical solutions of binary-phase circular Dammann gratings are given. The results of experiments with a four-order circular Dammann grating made by a lithographic technique are presented. This novel diffractive optical element should be highly interesting in a wide variety of practical applications.
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