Abstract

Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is demonstrated with a high-speed, broadband, reflective-grating phase modulator and a femtosecond Ti:Al2O3 laser. The novel system design permits high-resolution OCM imaging in a new operating regime in which a short coherence gate is used to relax the requirement for high-numerical-aperture confocal axial sectioning. In vivo cellular imaging is demonstrated in the Xenopus laevis tadpole and in human skin with a 3µm coherence gate and a 30µm confocal gate. The ability to achieve cellular imaging with a lower numerical aperture should facilitate the development of miniaturized probes for in vivo imaging applications.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2001

1999

1997

1996

M. Kempe, W. Rudolph, and E. Welsch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 46 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, W. Hsing-Wen, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, Jr., IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

1993

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, R. R.

M. Rajadhyaksha, R. R. Anderson, R. H. Webb, Appl. Opt. 38, 2105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angelow, G.

Barty, C. P. J.

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Cho, S. H.

Drexler, W.

Esterowitz, D.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grossman, M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haus, H. A.

Hee, M. R.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. M. Owen, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 19, 590 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsing-Wen, W.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, W. Hsing-Wen, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, Jr., IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

Izatt, J. A.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, W. Hsing-Wen, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, Jr., IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. M. Owen, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 19, 590 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Westphal, H. W. Wang, and J. A. Izatt, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 331–332.

Kärtner, F. X.

Kempe, M.

Kobayashi, K.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, W. Hsing-Wen, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, Jr., IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, M. D.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, W. Hsing-Wen, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, Jr., IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lemoff, B. E.

Li, X. D.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgner, U.

Owen, G. M.

Pitris, C.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajadhyaksha, M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, R. R. Anderson, R. H. Webb, Appl. Opt. 38, 2105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rudolph, W.

Sampson, D. D.

Scheuer, V.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivak, Jr., M. V.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, W. Hsing-Wen, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, Jr., IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. M. Owen, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 19, 590 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Tschudi, T.

Wang, H. W.

V. Westphal, H. W. Wang, and J. A. Izatt, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 331–332.

Webb, R. H.

M. Rajadhyaksha, R. R. Anderson, R. H. Webb, Appl. Opt. 38, 2105 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welsch, E.

Westphal, V.

V. Westphal, H. W. Wang, and J. A. Izatt, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 331–332.

Zvyagin, A. V.

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, W. Hsing-Wen, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, Jr., IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Invest. Dermatol.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Lett.

OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series

V. Westphal, H. W. Wang, and J. A. Izatt, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 331–332.

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the broadband, high-resolution OCM system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of reflective grating phase modulator in A, top and B, side views. TS, translation stage; FC, fiber collimator; DCP, dispersion-compensating prism; G, grating; CM, curved mirror; SM, scanning mirror; DPM, double-pass mirror. Characterization demonstrates C, high-bandwidth throughput and D, high-contrast heterodyne modulation signal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Resolution measurements of the broadband OCM system. The radius of the focal spot is 2 µm and resolution chart bar periods, A, of better than 4.4 µm can be resolved. The confocal and coherence gates, B, are measured to be 30 µm and 3 µm, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

In vivo cellular images of A, B, a Xenopus laevis tadpole and C, D, human skin. Nuclei (N), cell membranes (CM), and blood cells (BC) inside a vessel (V) are visible in the tadpole images, and epidermal cells (EC) and a vessel or duct structure (D) in the dermis can be seen in the skin images. Images were acquired at 4 frames/s with 5-mW sample power at 800 nm. The short coherence gate of 3 µm provides strong optical sectioning despite a relatively long 30µm confocal gate.

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