Abstract

Spatial wings of laser beams are of great concern in saturated laser-induced fluorescence. Their contribution to fluorescence is customarily avoided by resolution of laser peaks in the interaction volume. An alternative and versatile approach is formulated, based on the derivative of fluorescence with respect to laser intensity. It turns out that wing-free data are possible, although they are obtained from wing-dependent fluorescence. The advantages of this approach are exact centerline detection and simplicity of the experimental setup and procedure.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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2003 (1)

M. Magaldi and M. Marrocco, Appl. Phys. B 76, 699 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

R. V. Ravikrishna, C. S. Cooper, and N. M. Laurendeau, Combust. Flame 117, 810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. W. Daily, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 23, 133 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

K. Kohse-Höinghaus, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 20, 203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. R. Reisel, C. D. Carter, N. M. Laurendeau, and M. C. Drake, Combust. Sci. Technol. 91, 271 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (2)

P. Desgroux and M. J. Cottereau, Appl. Opt. 30, 90 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Carter, G. B. King, and N. M. Laurendeau, Combust. Sci. Technol. 78, 247 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

G. Zizak, F. Cignoli, and S. Benecchi, Appl. Phys. B 51, 67 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1985 (2)

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

K. Kohse-Höinghaus, W. Perc, and T. Just, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 87, 1052 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

R. A. Van Calcar, M. J. G. Heuts, B. K. Uitert, H. A. J. Meijer, T. Hollander, and C. T. J. Alkemade, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 28, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

R. A. Van Calcar, M. J. G. Heuts, B. K. Uitert, H. A. J. Meijer, T. Hollander, and C. T. J. Alkemade, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 26, 495 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1978 (2)

1973 (1)

A. B. Rodrigo and R. M. Measures, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 972 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

Alkemade, C. T. J.

R. A. Van Calcar, M. J. G. Heuts, B. K. Uitert, H. A. J. Meijer, T. Hollander, and C. T. J. Alkemade, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 28, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Van Calcar, M. J. G. Heuts, B. K. Uitert, H. A. J. Meijer, T. Hollander, and C. T. J. Alkemade, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 26, 495 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Benecchi, S.

G. Zizak, F. Cignoli, and S. Benecchi, Appl. Phys. B 51, 67 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Carter, C. D.

J. R. Reisel, C. D. Carter, N. M. Laurendeau, and M. C. Drake, Combust. Sci. Technol. 91, 271 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Carter, G. B. King, and N. M. Laurendeau, Appl. Opt. 31, 1511 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Carter, G. B. King, and N. M. Laurendeau, Combust. Sci. Technol. 78, 247 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cignoli, F.

G. Zizak, F. Cignoli, and S. Benecchi, Appl. Phys. B 51, 67 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, C. S.

R. V. Ravikrishna, C. S. Cooper, and N. M. Laurendeau, Combust. Flame 117, 810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cottereau, M. J.

Daily, J. W.

J. W. Daily, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 23, 133 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Daily, Appl. Opt. 17, 225 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demtröder, W.

W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Desgroux, P.

Drake, M. C.

J. R. Reisel, C. D. Carter, N. M. Laurendeau, and M. C. Drake, Combust. Sci. Technol. 91, 271 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Lucht, D. W. Sweeney, N. M. Laurendeau, M. C. Drake, M. Lapp, and R. W. Pitz, Opt. Lett. 9, 90 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Gordon & Breach, Amsterdam, 1996).

Fielding, J.

Freeman, M. P.

Hanson, R. K.

Heuts, M. J. G.

R. A. Van Calcar, M. J. G. Heuts, B. K. Uitert, H. A. J. Meijer, T. Hollander, and C. T. J. Alkemade, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 28, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Van Calcar, M. J. G. Heuts, B. K. Uitert, H. A. J. Meijer, T. Hollander, and C. T. J. Alkemade, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 26, 495 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hollander, T.

R. A. Van Calcar, M. J. G. Heuts, B. K. Uitert, H. A. J. Meijer, T. Hollander, and C. T. J. Alkemade, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 28, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Van Calcar, M. J. G. Heuts, B. K. Uitert, H. A. J. Meijer, T. Hollander, and C. T. J. Alkemade, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 26, 495 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Just, T.

K. Kohse-Höinghaus, W. Perc, and T. Just, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 87, 1052 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Katz, S.

King, G. B.

C. D. Carter, G. B. King, and N. M. Laurendeau, Appl. Opt. 31, 1511 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Carter, G. B. King, and N. M. Laurendeau, Combust. Sci. Technol. 78, 247 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kirby, B. J.

Kohse-Höinghaus, K.

K. Kohse-Höinghaus, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 20, 203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Kohse-Höinghaus, W. Perc, and T. Just, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 87, 1052 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lapp, M.

Laurendeau, N. M.

Long, M. B.

Lucht, R. P.

Magaldi, M.

M. Magaldi and M. Marrocco, Appl. Phys. B 76, 699 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mailänder, M.

M. Mailänder, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 1256 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Marrocco, M.

M. Magaldi and M. Marrocco, Appl. Phys. B 76, 699 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Measures, R. M.

A. B. Rodrigo and R. M. Measures, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 972 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Meijer, H. A. J.

R. A. Van Calcar, M. J. G. Heuts, B. K. Uitert, H. A. J. Meijer, T. Hollander, and C. T. J. Alkemade, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 28, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Van Calcar, M. J. G. Heuts, B. K. Uitert, H. A. J. Meijer, T. Hollander, and C. T. J. Alkemade, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 26, 495 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Perc, W.

K. Kohse-Höinghaus, W. Perc, and T. Just, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 87, 1052 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Pitz, R. W.

Ravikrishna, R. V.

R. V. Ravikrishna, C. S. Cooper, and N. M. Laurendeau, Combust. Flame 117, 810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reisel, J. R.

J. R. Reisel, C. D. Carter, N. M. Laurendeau, and M. C. Drake, Combust. Sci. Technol. 91, 271 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rodrigo, A. B.

A. B. Rodrigo and R. M. Measures, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 972 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, J. T.

Sweeney, D. W.

Uitert, B. K.

R. A. Van Calcar, M. J. G. Heuts, B. K. Uitert, H. A. J. Meijer, T. Hollander, and C. T. J. Alkemade, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 28, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Van Calcar, M. J. G. Heuts, B. K. Uitert, H. A. J. Meijer, T. Hollander, and C. T. J. Alkemade, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 26, 495 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Van Calcar, R. A.

R. A. Van Calcar, M. J. G. Heuts, B. K. Uitert, H. A. J. Meijer, T. Hollander, and C. T. J. Alkemade, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 28, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Van Calcar, M. J. G. Heuts, B. K. Uitert, H. A. J. Meijer, T. Hollander, and C. T. J. Alkemade, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 26, 495 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, K. T.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1988).

Zizak, G.

G. Zizak, F. Cignoli, and S. Benecchi, Appl. Phys. B 51, 67 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (8)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

G. Zizak, F. Cignoli, and S. Benecchi, Appl. Phys. B 51, 67 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Magaldi and M. Marrocco, Appl. Phys. B 76, 699 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. (1)

K. Kohse-Höinghaus, W. Perc, and T. Just, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 87, 1052 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame (1)

R. V. Ravikrishna, C. S. Cooper, and N. M. Laurendeau, Combust. Flame 117, 810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. D. Carter, G. B. King, and N. M. Laurendeau, Combust. Sci. Technol. 78, 247 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. R. Reisel, C. D. Carter, N. M. Laurendeau, and M. C. Drake, Combust. Sci. Technol. 91, 271 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. B. Rodrigo and R. M. Measures, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 972 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Mailänder, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 1256 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

R. A. Van Calcar, M. J. G. Heuts, B. K. Uitert, H. A. J. Meijer, T. Hollander, and C. T. J. Alkemade, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 26, 495 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Van Calcar, M. J. G. Heuts, B. K. Uitert, H. A. J. Meijer, T. Hollander, and C. T. J. Alkemade, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 28, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. (2)

K. Kohse-Höinghaus, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 20, 203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Daily, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 23, 133 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Gordon & Breach, Amsterdam, 1996).

W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003).
[CrossRef]

NDSolve routine in The Mathematica Book, 3rd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1996).

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1988).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Laser pulse. (b) Centerline fluorescence obtained for an excitation energy of 0.1 mJ. The laser beam waist is 100 µm. (c) Fluorescence from the whole interaction volume for the same physical conditions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Fluorescence obtained from Fig. 1(c) with spatial selection of a region near the laser centerline. The collected volume is ten times smaller than the volume determined by the laser beam waist. (b) Corrected fluorescence determined according to the right-hand side of Eq. (5). The open circles are points derived from Fig. 1(b).

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Φt,I0=kFt,Ir,tdr,
Iρ,ϑ,t=I0RρΘϑTt=IradρΘϑTt,
Φt,I0=-kl202π0I0R0×Ft,Irad,Θϑ,TtgIraddIraddϑ,
Ft,Iρ=0,t=-gI0R0πklR0dΦt,I0dI0,
Ft,Iρ=0,t=2kπw2lI0dΦt,I0dI0=I0kdΦefft,I0dI0.

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