Abstract

A method of measuring birefringence in slab and ridge waveguides based on the coherent superposition of Rayleigh light scattering from TE and TM polarized modes is described and demonstrated in silica-on-silicon waveguides. A measurement accuracy of approximately 10-6 has been achieved. This method is used to determine the evolution of waveguide birefringence with annealing temperature in phosphorous-doped glass waveguides. The measured birefringence increases rapidly with annealing temperatures up to 800 °C but remains unchanged for higher-temperature anneals. We interpret this threshold as the temperature above which glass can flow.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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[CrossRef]

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H. Sunami, Y. Itoh, and K. Sato, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 5115 (1970).
[CrossRef]

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M. Zirngibl, C. H. Joyner, I. W. Schulz, Th. Gaigge, and C. Dragone, Electron. Lett. 29, 201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (2)

S. M. Ohja, C. Cureton, T. Bricheno, S. Day, D. Moule, A. J. Bell, and J. Taylor, Electron. Lett. 34, 78 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Zirngibl, C. H. Joyner, I. W. Schulz, Th. Gaigge, and C. Dragone, Electron. Lett. 29, 201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J.-J. He, E. S. Koteles, B. Lamontagne, L. Erickson, A. Dalage, and M. Davies, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Sunami, Y. Itoh, and K. Sato, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 5115 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (1)

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1975).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental geometry or measuring waveguide birefringence for coherent superposition of Rayleigh scattered light from TE and TM modes. The arrows indicate the TE- and TM-polarized electric field directions, and the waveguide mode propagates into the page.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Images of Rayleigh scattering (negative images shown) from a slab waveguide with a TE-polarized mode (top), a TM-polarized mode (middle), and both TE and TM modes (bottom) propagating simultaneously in the waveguide. The input facet is at the right; the output facet, at the left.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Birefringence measured by Rayleigh scattering for PSG waveguides that have been annealed at temperatures from 600 to 900 °C. Dashed curve, estimated extrapolation to zero birefringence.

Equations (2)

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Isc=Aλ4ETM sin θ expikTMx+ETE sin ϕ expikTEx2.
Isc=Aλ4ETM2 sin2 θ+ETE2 cos2 θ+2ETMETE cosΔkxsin θ cos θ,

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