Abstract

Using the nanometer depth sensitivity of differential confocal microscopy, we detect surface features of lateral dimensions smaller than the diffraction limit without fluorescence labeling. The lateral resolution of the topographic images is further enhanced by a maximum-likelihood estimation algorithm. Based on the comparison of signal and noise at high spatial frequency, we estimate the best lateral resolution of the enhanced images to be 0.15λ. In addition, on composite samples this technique can simultaneously display sub-diffraction-limit topographic features and reflectivity heterogeneity.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2002 (2)

M. Dyba and S. W. Hell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 163901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhan and J. R. Leger, Opt. Lett. 27, 821 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

M. G. L. Gustafsson, J. Microsc. 198, 82 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Frohn, H. F. Knapp, and A. Stemmer, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 7232 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

C.-H. Lee and J. Wang, Opt. Commun. 135, 233 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

See, for example, G. M. P. van Kempen, H. T. M. van der Voort, J. G. J. Bauman, and K. C. Strasters, IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 15, 76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Schrader, S. W. Hell, and H. T. M. van der Voort, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3644 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

W. A. Carrington, R. M. Lynch, E. D. W. Moore, G. Isenberg, K. E. Fogarty, and F. S. Fay, Science 268, 1483 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

I. Csiszár, Ann. Stat. 19, 2033 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

D. L. Snyder, M. I. Miller, L. J. Thomas, Jr., and D. G. Politte, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 6, 228 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bauman, J. G. J.

See, for example, G. M. P. van Kempen, H. T. M. van der Voort, J. G. J. Bauman, and K. C. Strasters, IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 15, 76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brakenhoff, G. J.

Carrington, W. A.

W. A. Carrington, R. M. Lynch, E. D. W. Moore, G. Isenberg, K. E. Fogarty, and F. S. Fay, Science 268, 1483 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conchello, J.-A.

Csiszár, I.

I. Csiszár, Ann. Stat. 19, 2033 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dyba, M.

M. Dyba and S. W. Hell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 163901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fay, F. S.

W. A. Carrington, R. M. Lynch, E. D. W. Moore, G. Isenberg, K. E. Fogarty, and F. S. Fay, Science 268, 1483 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fogarty, K. E.

W. A. Carrington, R. M. Lynch, E. D. W. Moore, G. Isenberg, K. E. Fogarty, and F. S. Fay, Science 268, 1483 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frohn, J. T.

J. T. Frohn, H. F. Knapp, and A. Stemmer, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 7232 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gustafsson, M. G. L.

M. G. L. Gustafsson, J. Microsc. 198, 82 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hell, S. W.

M. Dyba and S. W. Hell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 163901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Klar and S. W. Hell, Opt. Lett. 24, 954 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Schrader, S. W. Hell, and H. T. M. van der Voort, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3644 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Isenberg, G.

W. A. Carrington, R. M. Lynch, E. D. W. Moore, G. Isenberg, K. E. Fogarty, and F. S. Fay, Science 268, 1483 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klar, T. A.

Knapp, H. F.

J. T. Frohn, H. F. Knapp, and A. Stemmer, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 7232 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, J.

Lee, C.-H.

Leger, J. R.

Lynch, R. M.

W. A. Carrington, R. M. Lynch, E. D. W. Moore, G. Isenberg, K. E. Fogarty, and F. S. Fay, Science 268, 1483 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markham, J.

Miller, M. I.

D. L. Snyder, M. I. Miller, L. J. Thomas, Jr., and D. G. Politte, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 6, 228 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Moore, E. D. W.

W. A. Carrington, R. M. Lynch, E. D. W. Moore, G. Isenberg, K. E. Fogarty, and F. S. Fay, Science 268, 1483 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, M.

Politte, D. G.

D. L. Snyder, M. I. Miller, L. J. Thomas, Jr., and D. G. Politte, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 6, 228 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, J.

Schrader, M.

M. Schrader, S. W. Hell, and H. T. M. van der Voort, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3644 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, D. L.

D. L. Snyder, M. I. Miller, L. J. Thomas, Jr., and D. G. Politte, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 6, 228 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stemmer, A.

J. T. Frohn, H. F. Knapp, and A. Stemmer, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 7232 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Strasters, K. C.

See, for example, G. M. P. van Kempen, H. T. M. van der Voort, J. G. J. Bauman, and K. C. Strasters, IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 15, 76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, Jr., L. J.

D. L. Snyder, M. I. Miller, L. J. Thomas, Jr., and D. G. Politte, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 6, 228 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C.-W.

van der Voort, H. T. M.

M. Schrader, S. W. Hell, and H. T. M. van der Voort, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3644 (1996).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, G. M. P. van Kempen, H. T. M. van der Voort, J. G. J. Bauman, and K. C. Strasters, IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 15, 76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

van Kempen, G. M. P.

See, for example, G. M. P. van Kempen, H. T. M. van der Voort, J. G. J. Bauman, and K. C. Strasters, IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 15, 76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

van Oijen, A. M.

Wang, J.

Zhan, Q.

Ann. Stat. (1)

I. Csiszár, Ann. Stat. 19, 2033 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Schrader, S. W. Hell, and H. T. M. van der Voort, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3644 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. (1)

See, for example, G. M. P. van Kempen, H. T. M. van der Voort, J. G. J. Bauman, and K. C. Strasters, IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 15, 76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

D. L. Snyder, M. I. Miller, L. J. Thomas, Jr., and D. G. Politte, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 6, 228 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

M. G. L. Gustafsson, J. Microsc. 198, 82 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Opt. Commun. (1)

C.-H. Lee and J. Wang, Opt. Commun. 135, 233 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Dyba and S. W. Hell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 163901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

J. T. Frohn, H. F. Knapp, and A. Stemmer, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 7232 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

W. A. Carrington, R. M. Lynch, E. D. W. Moore, G. Isenberg, K. E. Fogarty, and F. S. Fay, Science 268, 1483 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

We thank C.-D. Chen of the Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, for providing this sample.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Images and spectrum of a 140-nm-wide, 80-nm-high gold line. (a) SEM image. (b) Raw image obtained by DCM (120×120 pixels). (c) Restored DCM image after 745 iterations. The restored linewidth is correctly 140 nm. (d) Solid curve, cross-sectional profile of (b) at the position indicated in (b) by a dashed line. Dotted curve, cross-sectional profile of (c). After restoration the FWHM is decreased by a factor of 2.9. (e) Solid curve, spectrum of the cross-sectional profile in (b). Dashed curve, noise spectrum. The noise intensity crosses the signal at a spatial frequency of 12.2 µm-1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Images of a 2160-lines/mm wafflelike pattern. (a) Image obtained by ordinary optical microscopy. (b) Restored DCM image after 166 iterations (400×400 pixels).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images of 40-nm-high gold electrodes. (a) SEM image. The long electrodes are 100 nm wide, and the short ones are 130 nm wide. (b) Restored DCM image after 617 iterations (374×270 pixels). The bottom row shows magnified images of the region enclosed by rectangles in the upper row. In (b) the bottom image was doubly resampled for better visibility.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images of a trisquare pattern etched on silicon. (a) SEM image. The smaller squares inside are made of gold film. (b) Ordinary optical microscope image. (c) DCM raw image (250×250 pixels). (d) Surface plot of the restored DCM image after 290 iterations.

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