Abstract

We measure the susceptibility components of a poled polymer film by second-harmonic generation with two beams at the fundamental frequency. The technique allows the consistency of experimental data and the validity of the theoretical model used to analyze the results to be addressed. Our results are in agreement with the expected values, provided that the linear optical properties of the sample are properly included.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. F. Heinz, in Nonlinear Surface Electromagnetic Phenomena, H.-E. Ponath and G. I. Stegeman, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1991), pp. 353–416.
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. F. Heinz, in Photonic Probes of Surfaces, P. Halevi, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1995), pp. 413–478.
  3. Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984).
  4. T. F. Heinz, H. W. K. Tom, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. A 28, 1883 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Ricard, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 478 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, M. W. Kim, P. Valiant, Jr., and J. Bock, Phys. Rev. A 31, 537 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Marowsky and R. Steinhoff, Opt. Lett. 28, 1883 (1983).
  8. J. J. Maki, M. Kauranen, and A. Persoons, Phys. Rev. B 51, 1425 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. E. Sipe, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 481 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. J. Maki, M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, Phys. Rev. B 55, 5021 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials (Gordon & Breach, Basel, 1995).
  12. M. Eich, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, C. G. Willson, and G. C. Bjorklund, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3241 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. M. Hayden, G. F. Sauter, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, and R. A. Henry, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1997

J. J. Maki, M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, Phys. Rev. B 55, 5021 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials (Gordon & Breach, Basel, 1995).

T. F. Heinz, in Photonic Probes of Surfaces, P. Halevi, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1995), pp. 413–478.

J. J. Maki, M. Kauranen, and A. Persoons, Phys. Rev. B 51, 1425 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991

T. F. Heinz, in Nonlinear Surface Electromagnetic Phenomena, H.-E. Ponath and G. I. Stegeman, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1991), pp. 353–416.
[CrossRef]

1990

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Sauter, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, and R. A. Henry, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

M. Eich, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, C. G. Willson, and G. C. Bjorklund, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

1985

T. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, M. W. Kim, P. Valiant, Jr., and J. Bock, Phys. Rev. A 31, 537 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984).

1983

T. F. Heinz, H. W. K. Tom, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. A 28, 1883 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. Marowsky and R. Steinhoff, Opt. Lett. 28, 1883 (1983).

1982

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Ricard, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 478 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bjorklund, G. C.

M. Eich, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, C. G. Willson, and G. C. Bjorklund, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bock, J.

T. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, M. W. Kim, P. Valiant, Jr., and J. Bock, Phys. Rev. A 31, 537 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bosshard, C.

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials (Gordon & Breach, Basel, 1995).

Chen, C. K.

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Ricard, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 478 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Eich, M.

M. Eich, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, C. G. Willson, and G. C. Bjorklund, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Flörsheimer, M.

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials (Gordon & Breach, Basel, 1995).

Günter, P.

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials (Gordon & Breach, Basel, 1995).

Hayden, L. M.

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Sauter, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, and R. A. Henry, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

T. F. Heinz, in Photonic Probes of Surfaces, P. Halevi, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1995), pp. 413–478.

T. F. Heinz, in Nonlinear Surface Electromagnetic Phenomena, H.-E. Ponath and G. I. Stegeman, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1991), pp. 353–416.
[CrossRef]

T. F. Heinz, H. W. K. Tom, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. A 28, 1883 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Ricard, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 478 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Henry, R. A.

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Sauter, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, and R. A. Henry, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hoover, J. M.

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Sauter, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, and R. A. Henry, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hulliger, J.

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials (Gordon & Breach, Basel, 1995).

Kaatz, P.

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials (Gordon & Breach, Basel, 1995).

Kauranen, M.

J. J. Maki, M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, Phys. Rev. B 55, 5021 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Maki, M. Kauranen, and A. Persoons, Phys. Rev. B 51, 1425 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. W.

T. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, M. W. Kim, P. Valiant, Jr., and J. Bock, Phys. Rev. A 31, 537 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindsay, G. A.

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Sauter, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, and R. A. Henry, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Maki, J. J.

J. J. Maki, M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, Phys. Rev. B 55, 5021 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Maki, M. Kauranen, and A. Persoons, Phys. Rev. B 51, 1425 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Marowsky, G.

G. Marowsky and R. Steinhoff, Opt. Lett. 28, 1883 (1983).

Ore, F. R.

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Sauter, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, and R. A. Henry, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pasillas, P. L.

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Sauter, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, and R. A. Henry, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Persoons, A.

J. J. Maki, M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, Phys. Rev. B 55, 5021 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Maki, M. Kauranen, and A. Persoons, Phys. Rev. B 51, 1425 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Prêtre, P.

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials (Gordon & Breach, Basel, 1995).

Rasing, T.

T. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, M. W. Kim, P. Valiant, Jr., and J. Bock, Phys. Rev. A 31, 537 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reck, B.

M. Eich, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, C. G. Willson, and G. C. Bjorklund, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ricard, D.

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Ricard, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 478 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sauter, G. F.

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Sauter, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, and R. A. Henry, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

T. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, M. W. Kim, P. Valiant, Jr., and J. Bock, Phys. Rev. A 31, 537 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984).

T. F. Heinz, H. W. K. Tom, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. A 28, 1883 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Ricard, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 478 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

Steinhoff, R.

G. Marowsky and R. Steinhoff, Opt. Lett. 28, 1883 (1983).

Sutter, K.

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials (Gordon & Breach, Basel, 1995).

Tom, H. W. K.

T. F. Heinz, H. W. K. Tom, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. A 28, 1883 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Valiant, Jr., P.

T. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, M. W. Kim, P. Valiant, Jr., and J. Bock, Phys. Rev. A 31, 537 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verbiest, T.

J. J. Maki, M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, Phys. Rev. B 55, 5021 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Willson, C. G.

M. Eich, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, C. G. Willson, and G. C. Bjorklund, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, D. Y.

M. Eich, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, C. G. Willson, and G. C. Bjorklund, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. Eich, B. Reck, D. Y. Yoon, C. G. Willson, and G. C. Bjorklund, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Sauter, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, and R. A. Henry, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

G. Marowsky and R. Steinhoff, Opt. Lett. 28, 1883 (1983).

Phys. Rev. A

T. F. Heinz, H. W. K. Tom, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. A 28, 1883 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, M. W. Kim, P. Valiant, Jr., and J. Bock, Phys. Rev. A 31, 537 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B

J. J. Maki, M. Kauranen, and A. Persoons, Phys. Rev. B 51, 1425 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Maki, M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, Phys. Rev. B 55, 5021 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Ricard, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 478 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. F. Heinz, in Nonlinear Surface Electromagnetic Phenomena, H.-E. Ponath and G. I. Stegeman, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1991), pp. 353–416.
[CrossRef]

T. F. Heinz, in Photonic Probes of Surfaces, P. Halevi, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1995), pp. 413–478.

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984).

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials (Gordon & Breach, Basel, 1995).

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry for measuring the susceptibility components by two-beam SHG. BS, beam splitter; Ps, polarizers; QWP, quarter-wave plate; HWP, half-wave plate; M, mirror; VPs, variable-angle polarizers; PM, photomultiplier tube.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Possible Choices of Control and Signal Polarizations

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

χzxx2=χxxz2=12Nβ333cos θ sin2 θ, χzzz2=Nβ333cos3 θ,
χzxx2=χxxz2=χzzz2/a,
Ep2ω=fpApωBpω+gpAsωBsω,
Es2ω=fsApωBsω+gsAsωBpω,

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