Abstract

Differential spectral interferometry (DSI), a novel method of biomedical imaging that combines the high dynamic range of optical coherence tomography (OCT) with inherently parallel low-bandwidth image acquisition of spectral interferometry (SI), is described. DSI efficiently removes the deleterious dc background inherent in SI measurements while maintaining the parallel nature of SI. We demonstrate DSI on both synthetic and biological samples. Because DSI preserves the low-bandwidth, parallel nature of SI, it is competitive with OCT for biomedical applications in terms of image quality and acquisition rate.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kartner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 24, 1221 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Laubscher, M. Ducros, B. Karamata, T. Lesser, and R. Salathé, Opt. Express 10, 429 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  9. M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, R. Leitgeb, and A. F. Fercher, Opt. Lett. 27, 1415 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 20, 1486 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 20, 1486 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

Ducros, M.

El-Zaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, R. Leitgeb, and A. F. Fercher, Opt. Lett. 27, 1415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartl, I.

Hausler, G.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

B. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 20, 1486 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kane, D. J.

A. B. Vakhtin, D. J. Kane, W. R. Wood, and K. A. Peterson, “Imaging spectral interferometry for biological applications,” submitted to Appl. Opt., ().

Karamata, B.

Kartner, F. X.

Ko, T.

Kowalczyk, A.

Kowalevicz, A. M.

Laubscher, M.

Leitgeb, R.

Lesser, T.

Li, X. D.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindner, M. W.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morgner, U.

Peterson, K. A.

A. B. Vakhtin, D. J. Kane, W. R. Wood, and K. A. Peterson, “Imaging spectral interferometry for biological applications,” submitted to Appl. Opt., ().

Pitris, C.

W. Drexler, U. Morgner, F. X. Kartner, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, X. D. Li, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 24, 1221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pollnau, M.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salathé, R.

Salathé, R. P.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 20, 1486 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vakhtin, A. B.

A. B. Vakhtin, D. J. Kane, W. R. Wood, and K. A. Peterson, “Imaging spectral interferometry for biological applications,” submitted to Appl. Opt., ().

Wojtkowski, M.

Wood, W. R.

A. B. Vakhtin, D. J. Kane, W. R. Wood, and K. A. Peterson, “Imaging spectral interferometry for biological applications,” submitted to Appl. Opt., ().

Appl. Opt. (1)

A. B. Vakhtin, D. J. Kane, W. R. Wood, and K. A. Peterson, “Imaging spectral interferometry for biological applications,” submitted to Appl. Opt., ().

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Science (2)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the DSI instrument. SLD, superluminescent diode; PC, personal computer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Interferograms (insets) and their FTs that produce one-dimensional depth profiles of a test sample constructed from microscope glass coverslides: (a) SI image with zero displacement of the reference-arm mirror; (b) SI image with a π phase shift in the reference arm; (c) DSI image. The light source is a superluminescent diode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross-sectional (depth versus lateral position) images 500×256 pixels of a region of a Xenopus laevis tadpole head obtained by DSI (a) without averaging and (b) with averaging of 100 Fourier-transformed DSI spectra for each lateral position. The light source is a superluminescent diode.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Sω=E1ω2+E2ω2+E1ωE2ωcosϕ1ω-ϕ2ω-ωτ,
Sdifω=E1ωE2ωcosϕ1ω-ϕ2ω-ωτ-cosϕ1ω-ϕ2ω-ωτ+Δτ.
Sdifω=E1ωE2ωcosϕ1ω-ϕ2ω-ωτ-cosϕ1ω-ϕ2ω-ωτcosωΔτ-sinϕ1ω-ϕ2ω-ωτsinωΔτ.
Sdifω2E1ωE2ωcosϕ1ω-ϕ2ω-ωτ.

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