Abstract

We propose and demonstrate an efficient coupler for compact mode conversion between a fiber and a submicrometer waveguide. The coupler is composed of high-index-contrast materials and is based on a short taper with a nanometer-sized tip. We show that the micrometer-long silicon-on-insulator-based nanotaper coupler is able to efficiently convert both the mode field profile and the effective index, with a total length as short as 40 µm. We measure an enhancement of the coupling efficiency between an optical fiber and a waveguide by 1 order of magnitude due to the coupler.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Hauffe, U. Siebel, K. Petermann, R. Moosburger, J.-R. Kropp, and F. Arndt, IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 4, 450 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Manolatou and H. Haus, in 2001 IEEE Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), p. 31.
  3. T. Alder, A. Stöhr, R. Heinzelmann, and D. Jäger, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1016 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. Moerman, P. P. Van Daele, and P. M. Demeester, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1308 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Kasaya, O. Mitomi, M. Naganuma, Y. Kondo, and Y. Noguchi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 345 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. O. Mitomi, K. Kasaya, and H. Miyazawa, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 1787 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, and R. Baets, in Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2001) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), Vol. 6, p. 30.
  8. G. A. Vawter, C. T. Sullivan, J. R. Wendt, R. E. Smith, H. Q. Hou, and J. F. Klem, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1361 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Wongcharoen, B. M. A. Rahman, M. Rajarajan, and K. T. V. Grattan, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 708 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Lin and C. Wu, Proc. SPIE 4579, 64 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Naydenkov and B. Jalali, in 1999 IEEE International Silicon-on-Insulator Conference (SOI) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), p. 56.
  12. J. Nishimura and K. Morishita, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1260 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Shiraishi, A. Ogura, and K. Mtasuura, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1757 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, Henry I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Sakai, G. Hara, and T. Baba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 4B, L383 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Sakai, G. Hara, and T. Baba, Proc. SPIE 4283, 610 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2001

R. Hauffe, U. Siebel, K. Petermann, R. Moosburger, J.-R. Kropp, and F. Arndt, IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 4, 450 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Manolatou and H. Haus, in 2001 IEEE Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), p. 31.

T. Wongcharoen, B. M. A. Rahman, M. Rajarajan, and K. T. V. Grattan, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 708 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Lin and C. Wu, Proc. SPIE 4579, 64 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, and R. Baets, in Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2001) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), Vol. 6, p. 30.

A. Sakai, G. Hara, and T. Baba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 4B, L383 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Sakai, G. Hara, and T. Baba, Proc. SPIE 4283, 610 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

T. Alder, A. Stöhr, R. Heinzelmann, and D. Jäger, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1016 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Naydenkov and B. Jalali, in 1999 IEEE International Silicon-on-Insulator Conference (SOI) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), p. 56.

J. Nishimura and K. Morishita, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1260 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

K. Shiraishi, A. Ogura, and K. Mtasuura, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1757 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, Henry I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Moerman, P. P. Van Daele, and P. M. Demeester, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1308 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Vawter, C. T. Sullivan, J. R. Wendt, R. E. Smith, H. Q. Hou, and J. F. Klem, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1361 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

O. Mitomi, K. Kasaya, and H. Miyazawa, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 1787 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

K. Kasaya, O. Mitomi, M. Naganuma, Y. Kondo, and Y. Noguchi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 345 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Alder, T.

T. Alder, A. Stöhr, R. Heinzelmann, and D. Jäger, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1016 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arndt, F.

R. Hauffe, U. Siebel, K. Petermann, R. Moosburger, J.-R. Kropp, and F. Arndt, IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 4, 450 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

A. Sakai, G. Hara, and T. Baba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 4B, L383 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Sakai, G. Hara, and T. Baba, Proc. SPIE 4283, 610 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, and R. Baets, in Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2001) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), Vol. 6, p. 30.

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, and R. Baets, in Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2001) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), Vol. 6, p. 30.

Bogaerts, W.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, and R. Baets, in Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2001) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), Vol. 6, p. 30.

Demeester, P. M.

I. Moerman, P. P. Van Daele, and P. M. Demeester, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1308 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, Henry I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ferrera, J.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, Henry I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J. S.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, Henry I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grattan, K. T. V.

T. Wongcharoen, B. M. A. Rahman, M. Rajarajan, and K. T. V. Grattan, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 708 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hara, G.

A. Sakai, G. Hara, and T. Baba, Proc. SPIE 4283, 610 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Sakai, G. Hara, and T. Baba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 4B, L383 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hauffe, R.

R. Hauffe, U. Siebel, K. Petermann, R. Moosburger, J.-R. Kropp, and F. Arndt, IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 4, 450 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H.

C. Manolatou and H. Haus, in 2001 IEEE Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), p. 31.

Heinzelmann, R.

T. Alder, A. Stöhr, R. Heinzelmann, and D. Jäger, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1016 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hou, H. Q.

G. A. Vawter, C. T. Sullivan, J. R. Wendt, R. E. Smith, H. Q. Hou, and J. F. Klem, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1361 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, Henry I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jäger, D.

T. Alder, A. Stöhr, R. Heinzelmann, and D. Jäger, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1016 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

M. Naydenkov and B. Jalali, in 1999 IEEE International Silicon-on-Insulator Conference (SOI) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), p. 56.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, Henry I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kasaya, K.

O. Mitomi, K. Kasaya, and H. Miyazawa, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 1787 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Kasaya, O. Mitomi, M. Naganuma, Y. Kondo, and Y. Noguchi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 345 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, Henry I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Klem, J. F.

G. A. Vawter, C. T. Sullivan, J. R. Wendt, R. E. Smith, H. Q. Hou, and J. F. Klem, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1361 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, Y.

K. Kasaya, O. Mitomi, M. Naganuma, Y. Kondo, and Y. Noguchi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 345 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, and R. Baets, in Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2001) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), Vol. 6, p. 30.

Kropp, J.-R.

R. Hauffe, U. Siebel, K. Petermann, R. Moosburger, J.-R. Kropp, and F. Arndt, IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 4, 450 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W.

W. Lin and C. Wu, Proc. SPIE 4579, 64 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Manolatou, C.

C. Manolatou and H. Haus, in 2001 IEEE Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), p. 31.

Mitomi, O.

O. Mitomi, K. Kasaya, and H. Miyazawa, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 1787 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Kasaya, O. Mitomi, M. Naganuma, Y. Kondo, and Y. Noguchi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 345 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Miyazawa, H.

O. Mitomi, K. Kasaya, and H. Miyazawa, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 1787 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moerman, I.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, and R. Baets, in Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2001) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), Vol. 6, p. 30.

I. Moerman, P. P. Van Daele, and P. M. Demeester, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1308 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moosburger, R.

R. Hauffe, U. Siebel, K. Petermann, R. Moosburger, J.-R. Kropp, and F. Arndt, IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 4, 450 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Morishita, K.

J. Nishimura and K. Morishita, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1260 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mtasuura, K.

K. Shiraishi, A. Ogura, and K. Mtasuura, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1757 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Naganuma, M.

K. Kasaya, O. Mitomi, M. Naganuma, Y. Kondo, and Y. Noguchi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 345 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Naydenkov, M.

M. Naydenkov and B. Jalali, in 1999 IEEE International Silicon-on-Insulator Conference (SOI) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), p. 56.

Nishimura, J.

J. Nishimura and K. Morishita, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1260 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Noguchi, Y.

K. Kasaya, O. Mitomi, M. Naganuma, Y. Kondo, and Y. Noguchi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 345 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ogura, A.

K. Shiraishi, A. Ogura, and K. Mtasuura, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1757 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

R. Hauffe, U. Siebel, K. Petermann, R. Moosburger, J.-R. Kropp, and F. Arndt, IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 4, 450 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rahman, B. M. A.

T. Wongcharoen, B. M. A. Rahman, M. Rajarajan, and K. T. V. Grattan, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 708 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rajarajan, M.

T. Wongcharoen, B. M. A. Rahman, M. Rajarajan, and K. T. V. Grattan, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 708 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, A.

A. Sakai, G. Hara, and T. Baba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 4B, L383 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Sakai, G. Hara, and T. Baba, Proc. SPIE 4283, 610 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shiraishi, K.

K. Shiraishi, A. Ogura, and K. Mtasuura, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1757 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Siebel, U.

R. Hauffe, U. Siebel, K. Petermann, R. Moosburger, J.-R. Kropp, and F. Arndt, IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 4, 450 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smith, Henry I.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, Henry I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. E.

G. A. Vawter, C. T. Sullivan, J. R. Wendt, R. E. Smith, H. Q. Hou, and J. F. Klem, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1361 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, Henry I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stöhr, A.

T. Alder, A. Stöhr, R. Heinzelmann, and D. Jäger, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1016 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, C. T.

G. A. Vawter, C. T. Sullivan, J. R. Wendt, R. E. Smith, H. Q. Hou, and J. F. Klem, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1361 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Taillaert, D.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, and R. Baets, in Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2001) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), Vol. 6, p. 30.

Thoen, E. R.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, Henry I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Van Daele, P.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, and R. Baets, in Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2001) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), Vol. 6, p. 30.

Van Daele, P. P.

I. Moerman, P. P. Van Daele, and P. M. Demeester, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1308 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vawter, G. A.

G. A. Vawter, C. T. Sullivan, J. R. Wendt, R. E. Smith, H. Q. Hou, and J. F. Klem, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1361 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, Henry I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wendt, J. R.

G. A. Vawter, C. T. Sullivan, J. R. Wendt, R. E. Smith, H. Q. Hou, and J. F. Klem, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1361 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wongcharoen, T.

T. Wongcharoen, B. M. A. Rahman, M. Rajarajan, and K. T. V. Grattan, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 708 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

W. Lin and C. Wu, Proc. SPIE 4579, 64 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

O. Mitomi, K. Kasaya, and H. Miyazawa, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 1787 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

I. Moerman, P. P. Van Daele, and P. M. Demeester, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1308 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

G. A. Vawter, C. T. Sullivan, J. R. Wendt, R. E. Smith, H. Q. Hou, and J. F. Klem, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1361 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Nishimura and K. Morishita, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1260 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

K. Shiraishi, A. Ogura, and K. Mtasuura, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1757 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. Alder, A. Stöhr, R. Heinzelmann, and D. Jäger, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1016 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Kasaya, O. Mitomi, M. Naganuma, Y. Kondo, and Y. Noguchi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 345 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.

R. Hauffe, U. Siebel, K. Petermann, R. Moosburger, J.-R. Kropp, and F. Arndt, IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 4, 450 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

T. Wongcharoen, B. M. A. Rahman, M. Rajarajan, and K. T. V. Grattan, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 708 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2

A. Sakai, G. Hara, and T. Baba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 4B, L383 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nature

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, Henry I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, Nature 390, 143 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

A. Sakai, G. Hara, and T. Baba, Proc. SPIE 4283, 610 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Lin and C. Wu, Proc. SPIE 4579, 64 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Naydenkov and B. Jalali, in 1999 IEEE International Silicon-on-Insulator Conference (SOI) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), p. 56.

C. Manolatou and H. Haus, in 2001 IEEE Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), p. 31.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, and R. Baets, in Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2001) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2001), Vol. 6, p. 30.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of a waveguide with a nanotaper coupler.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mode mismatch loss dependence on nanotaper tip width. The crosshatched region represents the range of experimental values of wt.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scanning electron microscopy pictures of a typical nanotaper coupler, showing an enlarged view of the tip.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Additional insertion loss of the nanotaper caused by fiber-coupler transverse misalignment for a TE-like mode at λ0=1550 nm.

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