Abstract

A double-clad photonic crystal fiber was used to improve detection efficiency over a standard single-mode fiber in a two-photon fluorescence detection scheme in which the dye was excited and the fluorescence was detected back through the same fiber.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Y. Ye, M. T. Myaing, T. B. Norris, T. Thomas, and J. Baker, Jr., Opt. Lett. 27, 1412 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Thomas, M. T. Myaing, J. Y. Ye, K. Candido, A. Kotlyar, J. Beals, P. Cao, B. Keszler, T. B. Norris, and J. Baker, Jr., “Quantitation of tumor fluorescence using a two-photon optical fiber fluorescence probe,” submitted to Nat. Biotechnol., ().
  3. A. Lago, A. T. Obeidat, A. E. Kaplan, J. B. Khurgin, and P. L. Shkolnikov, Opt. Lett. 20, 2054 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. G. Ouzounov, K. D. Moll, M. A. Foster, W. R. Zipfel, W. W. Webb, and A. L. Gaeta, Opt. Lett. 27, 1513 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. J. Wadsworth, R. M. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 11, 48 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 22, 961 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

Baker, Jr., J.

J. Y. Ye, M. T. Myaing, T. B. Norris, T. Thomas, and J. Baker, Jr., Opt. Lett. 27, 1412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Thomas, M. T. Myaing, J. Y. Ye, K. Candido, A. Kotlyar, J. Beals, P. Cao, B. Keszler, T. B. Norris, and J. Baker, Jr., “Quantitation of tumor fluorescence using a two-photon optical fiber fluorescence probe,” submitted to Nat. Biotechnol., ().

Beals, J.

T. Thomas, M. T. Myaing, J. Y. Ye, K. Candido, A. Kotlyar, J. Beals, P. Cao, B. Keszler, T. B. Norris, and J. Baker, Jr., “Quantitation of tumor fluorescence using a two-photon optical fiber fluorescence probe,” submitted to Nat. Biotechnol., ().

Birks, T. A.

Bouwmans, G.

Candido, K.

T. Thomas, M. T. Myaing, J. Y. Ye, K. Candido, A. Kotlyar, J. Beals, P. Cao, B. Keszler, T. B. Norris, and J. Baker, Jr., “Quantitation of tumor fluorescence using a two-photon optical fiber fluorescence probe,” submitted to Nat. Biotechnol., ().

Cao, P.

T. Thomas, M. T. Myaing, J. Y. Ye, K. Candido, A. Kotlyar, J. Beals, P. Cao, B. Keszler, T. B. Norris, and J. Baker, Jr., “Quantitation of tumor fluorescence using a two-photon optical fiber fluorescence probe,” submitted to Nat. Biotechnol., ().

Foster, M. A.

Gaeta, A. L.

Kaplan, A. E.

Keszler, B.

T. Thomas, M. T. Myaing, J. Y. Ye, K. Candido, A. Kotlyar, J. Beals, P. Cao, B. Keszler, T. B. Norris, and J. Baker, Jr., “Quantitation of tumor fluorescence using a two-photon optical fiber fluorescence probe,” submitted to Nat. Biotechnol., ().

Khurgin, J. B.

Knight, J. C.

Kotlyar, A.

T. Thomas, M. T. Myaing, J. Y. Ye, K. Candido, A. Kotlyar, J. Beals, P. Cao, B. Keszler, T. B. Norris, and J. Baker, Jr., “Quantitation of tumor fluorescence using a two-photon optical fiber fluorescence probe,” submitted to Nat. Biotechnol., ().

Lago, A.

Moll, K. D.

Myaing, M. T.

J. Y. Ye, M. T. Myaing, T. B. Norris, T. Thomas, and J. Baker, Jr., Opt. Lett. 27, 1412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Thomas, M. T. Myaing, J. Y. Ye, K. Candido, A. Kotlyar, J. Beals, P. Cao, B. Keszler, T. B. Norris, and J. Baker, Jr., “Quantitation of tumor fluorescence using a two-photon optical fiber fluorescence probe,” submitted to Nat. Biotechnol., ().

Norris, T. B.

J. Y. Ye, M. T. Myaing, T. B. Norris, T. Thomas, and J. Baker, Jr., Opt. Lett. 27, 1412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Thomas, M. T. Myaing, J. Y. Ye, K. Candido, A. Kotlyar, J. Beals, P. Cao, B. Keszler, T. B. Norris, and J. Baker, Jr., “Quantitation of tumor fluorescence using a two-photon optical fiber fluorescence probe,” submitted to Nat. Biotechnol., ().

Obeidat, A. T.

Ouzounov, D. G.

Percival, R. M.

Russell, P. St. J.

Shkolnikov, P. L.

Thomas, T.

J. Y. Ye, M. T. Myaing, T. B. Norris, T. Thomas, and J. Baker, Jr., Opt. Lett. 27, 1412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Thomas, M. T. Myaing, J. Y. Ye, K. Candido, A. Kotlyar, J. Beals, P. Cao, B. Keszler, T. B. Norris, and J. Baker, Jr., “Quantitation of tumor fluorescence using a two-photon optical fiber fluorescence probe,” submitted to Nat. Biotechnol., ().

Wadsworth, W. J.

Webb, W. W.

Ye, J. Y.

J. Y. Ye, M. T. Myaing, T. B. Norris, T. Thomas, and J. Baker, Jr., Opt. Lett. 27, 1412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Thomas, M. T. Myaing, J. Y. Ye, K. Candido, A. Kotlyar, J. Beals, P. Cao, B. Keszler, T. B. Norris, and J. Baker, Jr., “Quantitation of tumor fluorescence using a two-photon optical fiber fluorescence probe,” submitted to Nat. Biotechnol., ().

Zipfel, W. R.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning electron microscopy image of a large-mode-area double-clad fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup. The sample is excited by femtosecond pulses through the optical fiber, and the resulting fluorescence is collected back through the same fiber. PMT, photomultiplier tube.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two-photon fluorescence signal versus excitation power for standard single-mode and double-clad photonic crystal fiber.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated enhancement of the DC PCF signal over the SMF signal as a function of the NA of the outer core of the DC PCF.

Equations (3)

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Pf0ηϕzIout2zτoutRπW2zdz,
ϕz=121-1-NA/n2for zbnNA1-NA/n2121-zz2+b2for z>bnNA1-NA/n2,
PfDπηC2PL2n4Rτoutλ1-πna2n2π2a4-λ2b2-2π1-NA/n2arctanλb1-NA/n2πa2NA+2na2n2π2a4-λ2b2arctanλbnNAn2π2a4-λ2b2.

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