Abstract

The effects of light-induced reorientation on a homeotropical dye-doped liquid crystal (DDLC) cell are discussed. The photoexcited azo dye Methyl Red (MR) is diffused and adsorbed onto the substrate, thus forming a ripple structure. The adsorbed dye and the laser-induced ripple structure then reorient the liquid-crystal molecules and induce a holographic grating. Initially, the liquid-crystal directors are reoriented primarily by the adsorbed dye. However, given a sufficiently large ripple groove amplitude, the torque imposed by the ripple grooves overcomes that which is due to the adsorbed dyes, and the liquid crystals are realigned along the groove direction.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2001

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, Phys. Rev. E 63, 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-C. Liao, K.-C. Hsu, C.-L. Lu, and C.-Y. Tsai, Opt. Lett. 26, 1767 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. V. Kuksenok and S. V. Shiyanovskii, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 359, 107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

D. Voloschenko and O. D. Lavrentovich, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

V. P. Vorflusev, H.-S. Kitzerow, and V. G. Chigrinov, Appl. Phys. A 64, 615 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

D. Voloschenko, A. Khizhnyak, Yu. Reznikov, and V. Reshetnyak, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

Y. Kawata, K. Takatoh, M. Hasegawa, and M. Sakamoto, Liq. Cryst. 16, 1027 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, Nature (London) 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

H. Niino, Y. Kawabata, and A. Yabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 28, L2225 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986

A. E. Siegman and P. M. Fauchet, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1384 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1978

D. C. Flanders, D. C. Shaver, and H. I. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 597 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1973

D. W. Berreman, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 23, 215 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972

D. W. Berreman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 1683 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Berreman, D. W.

D. W. Berreman, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 23, 215 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Berreman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 1683 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Chigrinov, V. G.

V. P. Vorflusev, H.-S. Kitzerow, and V. G. Chigrinov, Appl. Phys. A 64, 615 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P. M.

A. E. Siegman and P. M. Fauchet, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1384 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fedorenko, D.

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, Phys. Rev. E 63, 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Flanders, D. C.

D. C. Flanders, D. C. Shaver, and H. I. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 597 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Francescangeli, O.

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, Phys. Rev. E 63, 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fuh, A. Y.-G.

Gibbons, W. M.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, Nature (London) 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, M.

Y. Kawata, K. Takatoh, M. Hasegawa, and M. Sakamoto, Liq. Cryst. 16, 1027 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, K.-C.

Kawabata, Y.

H. Niino, Y. Kawabata, and A. Yabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 28, L2225 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, Y.

Y. Kawata, K. Takatoh, M. Hasegawa, and M. Sakamoto, Liq. Cryst. 16, 1027 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Khizhnyak, A.

D. Voloschenko, A. Khizhnyak, Yu. Reznikov, and V. Reshetnyak, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kitzerow, H.-S.

V. P. Vorflusev, H.-S. Kitzerow, and V. G. Chigrinov, Appl. Phys. A 64, 615 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kuksenok, O. V.

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, Phys. Rev. E 63, 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. V. Kuksenok and S. V. Shiyanovskii, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 359, 107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lavrentovich, O. D.

D. Voloschenko and O. D. Lavrentovich, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C.-C.

Lu, C.-L.

Lugomer, S.

S. Lugomer, Laser Technology: A Laser-Driven Process (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1990).

Niino, H.

H. Niino, Y. Kawabata, and A. Yabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 28, L2225 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ouskova, E.

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, Phys. Rev. E 63, 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Reshetnyak, V.

D. Voloschenko, A. Khizhnyak, Yu. Reznikov, and V. Reshetnyak, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Reznikov, Yu.

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, Phys. Rev. E 63, 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Voloschenko, A. Khizhnyak, Yu. Reznikov, and V. Reshetnyak, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, M.

Y. Kawata, K. Takatoh, M. Hasegawa, and M. Sakamoto, Liq. Cryst. 16, 1027 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shannon, P. J.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, Nature (London) 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shaver, D. C.

D. C. Flanders, D. C. Shaver, and H. I. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 597 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Shiyanovskii, S. V.

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, Phys. Rev. E 63, 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. V. Kuksenok and S. V. Shiyanovskii, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 359, 107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman and P. M. Fauchet, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1384 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Simoni, F.

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, Phys. Rev. E 63, 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. I.

D. C. Flanders, D. C. Shaver, and H. I. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 597 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Su, L.

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, Phys. Rev. E 63, 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sun, S. T.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, Nature (London) 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Swetlin, B. J.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, Nature (London) 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Takatoh, K.

Y. Kawata, K. Takatoh, M. Hasegawa, and M. Sakamoto, Liq. Cryst. 16, 1027 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C.-Y.

Voloschenko, D.

D. Voloschenko and O. D. Lavrentovich, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Voloschenko, A. Khizhnyak, Yu. Reznikov, and V. Reshetnyak, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vorflusev, V. P.

V. P. Vorflusev, H.-S. Kitzerow, and V. G. Chigrinov, Appl. Phys. A 64, 615 (1997).
[CrossRef]

West, J. L.

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, Phys. Rev. E 63, 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yabe, A.

H. Niino, Y. Kawabata, and A. Yabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 28, L2225 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A

V. P. Vorflusev, H.-S. Kitzerow, and V. G. Chigrinov, Appl. Phys. A 64, 615 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. C. Flanders, D. C. Shaver, and H. I. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 597 (1978).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

A. E. Siegman and P. M. Fauchet, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1384 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

D. Voloschenko and O. D. Lavrentovich, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4843 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

D. Voloschenko, A. Khizhnyak, Yu. Reznikov, and V. Reshetnyak, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2

H. Niino, Y. Kawabata, and A. Yabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 28, L2225 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst.

Y. Kawata, K. Takatoh, M. Hasegawa, and M. Sakamoto, Liq. Cryst. 16, 1027 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

O. V. Kuksenok and S. V. Shiyanovskii, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 359, 107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Berreman, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 23, 215 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, Nature (London) 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. E

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, Phys. Rev. E 63, 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. W. Berreman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 1683 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Lugomer, Laser Technology: A Laser-Driven Process (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1990).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup used to measure the laser-induced reorientation effect in a DDLC film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dynamic measurements of the first-order diffracted intensities of samples doped with 1.2-, 1.5-, and 3-wt. % MR written with TE-polarized beams and probed by a TM-polarized beam.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) SEM images of the adsorbed MR dyes upon the substrates for a sample written with TE-polarized beams, (b) detail of the area shown in (a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measurements of the variations of the first-order diffracted intensities of the DDLC gratings written with TE-polarized pump beams for (a) 1000 s and (b) 12,000 s with respect to polarization angle φ of the probe beam.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

AFM image of the sample that produced the SEM image of Fig. 3(b).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Amplitudes of the Ripple Grooves from AFM Measurements of a Grating Written by TE-Polarized Beams for 1000 and 12,000 sa

Equations (2)

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Λ=λn cosθ,
Wϕ=14Ka22πL3,

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