Abstract

We investigate codirectional mode coupling induced by periodic microbending in polarization-maintaining (PM) fibers by using both an acoustic flexural wave and a pair of corrugated fixtures. The measured filtering spectra are found to be strongly polarization dependent. In addition, the coupling strength depends on the angle between the birefringence axes and the bending direction. These characteristics can be utilized for a variety of applications, such as fiber polarizers, polarization-dependent-loss compensators, and on-line alignment of birefringence axes for the manufacture of PM fiber couplers.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2002 (3)

Y. Jiang, Q. Li, C. H. Lin, E. Lyons, I. Tomov, and H. P. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 941 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, X. Liu, J. Peng, B. Zhou, E. R. Lyons, and H. P. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 337 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Z. Dashti, Q. Li, and H. P. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1997 (3)

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, J. B. Judhins, J. B. Stark, and A. M. Vengsarkar, Opt. Lett. 22, 883 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, and R. I. Laming, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1370 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Kim, S. H. Yun, I. K. Kwang, and B. Y. Kim, Opt. Lett. 22, 1476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1978 (1)

R. N. Thurston, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 64, 1 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bagratashvili, V. N.

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, and R. I. Laming, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1370 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, V.

Claus, R. O.

Das, M.

M. Das, S. Ramachandran, Z. Wang, J. Fleming, and M. Yan, in Vol. 4 of 2002 ECOC Proceeding (Highway House Communication, London, 2002), paper 10.4.5.

Dashti, P. Z.

P. Z. Dashti, Q. Li, and H. P. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

de Sandro, J. P.

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, and R. I. Laming, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1370 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Digonnet, M. J. F.

Dong, L.

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, and R. I. Laming, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1370 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Fang, X.

Fleming, J.

M. Das, S. Ramachandran, Z. Wang, J. Fleming, and M. Yan, in Vol. 4 of 2002 ECOC Proceeding (Highway House Communication, London, 2002), paper 10.4.5.

Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, Q. Li, C. H. Lin, E. Lyons, I. Tomov, and H. P. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 941 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Judhins, J. B.

Kim, B. Y.

Kim, H. S.

Kino, G. S.

Kwang, I. K.

Laming, R. I.

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, and R. I. Laming, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1370 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. P.

Y. Jiang, Q. Li, C. H. Lin, E. Lyons, I. Tomov, and H. P. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 941 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Z. Dashti, Q. Li, and H. P. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, X. Liu, J. Peng, B. Zhou, E. R. Lyons, and H. P. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 337 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

P. Z. Dashti, Q. Li, and H. P. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, X. Liu, J. Peng, B. Zhou, E. R. Lyons, and H. P. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 337 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, Q. Li, C. H. Lin, E. Lyons, I. Tomov, and H. P. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 941 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. H.

Y. Jiang, Q. Li, C. H. Lin, E. Lyons, I. Tomov, and H. P. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 941 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. F.

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, and R. I. Laming, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1370 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Q. Li, X. Liu, J. Peng, B. Zhou, E. R. Lyons, and H. P. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 337 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lyons, E.

Y. Jiang, Q. Li, C. H. Lin, E. Lyons, I. Tomov, and H. P. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 941 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lyons, E. R.

Q. Li, X. Liu, J. Peng, B. Zhou, E. R. Lyons, and H. P. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 337 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ortega, B.

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, and R. I. Laming, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1370 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Peng, J.

Q. Li, X. Liu, J. Peng, B. Zhou, E. R. Lyons, and H. P. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 337 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ramachandran, S.

M. Das, S. Ramachandran, Z. Wang, J. Fleming, and M. Yan, in Vol. 4 of 2002 ECOC Proceeding (Highway House Communication, London, 2002), paper 10.4.5.

Reekie, L.

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, and R. I. Laming, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1370 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Savin, S.

Shaw, H. J.

Slusher, R. E.

Stark, J. B.

Thurston, R. N.

R. N. Thurston, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 64, 1 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Tomov, I.

Y. Jiang, Q. Li, C. H. Lin, E. Lyons, I. Tomov, and H. P. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 941 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsypina, S. I.

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, and R. I. Laming, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1370 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Wang, Z.

M. Das, S. Ramachandran, Z. Wang, J. Fleming, and M. Yan, in Vol. 4 of 2002 ECOC Proceeding (Highway House Communication, London, 2002), paper 10.4.5.

Yan, M.

M. Das, S. Ramachandran, Z. Wang, J. Fleming, and M. Yan, in Vol. 4 of 2002 ECOC Proceeding (Highway House Communication, London, 2002), paper 10.4.5.

Yun, S. H.

Zhou, B.

Q. Li, X. Liu, J. Peng, B. Zhou, E. R. Lyons, and H. P. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 337 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. Z. Dashti, Q. Li, and H. P. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. de Sandro, L. Reekie, S. I. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, and R. I. Laming, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1370 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, Q. Li, C. H. Lin, E. Lyons, I. Tomov, and H. P. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 941 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, X. Liu, J. Peng, B. Zhou, E. R. Lyons, and H. P. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 337 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

R. N. Thurston, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 64, 1 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (1)

M. Das, S. Ramachandran, Z. Wang, J. Fleming, and M. Yan, in Vol. 4 of 2002 ECOC Proceeding (Highway House Communication, London, 2002), paper 10.4.5.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the input polarization, microbending direction, and birefringence axes of the fiber. (b) Polarized spectra when the input polarization is aligned to either birefringence axis at acoustic frequency of 1.57 MHz (grating period of 820 µm). (c) and (d) Plots of Δnc,cl,ji and the corresponding Λ (grating period) versus resonant wavelengths for coupling to each cladding mode obtained from the frequency-wavelength tuning characteristics of AO measurement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Microbending fixture. (b) Measured polarized filtering spectra with a microbending fixture (Λ of 820 µm) versus rotational angle of the fiber. The resonances correspond to coupling to a few of the lowest-order modes. Each spectrum in the plot corresponds to input polarization aligned to a given birefringence axis. (c) Images from the TV screen of a fusion splicer at the maximum and minimum resonant peaks of the spectra in (b). At these positions, the stress members are aligned vertically and horizontally relative to the direction of microbending.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured polarized filtering spectra with microbending fixture (Λ of 620 µm) versus rotational angle of the fiber. Here, the resonances correspond to coupling to higher-order modes. Each spectrum in the plot corresponds to alignment of the input polarization to a given birefringence axis. (b) Near-field distributions of low- and high-order cladding modes as viewed by a CCD camera.

Equations (1)

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κc,cl,ji=πλ0μ0n0AEco,ix,yΔnx,y×Ejcl,ix,ydxdy,

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