Abstract

We propose a novel ultrafast photonic analog-to-digital converter that uses the soliton self-frequency shift in an optical fiber as an optical power-to-frequency conversion mechanism and a set of interleaving spectral filters as the optical comparators. Our method does all the signal processing in the optical domain and requires binary receivers in only the electronic domain. In contrast to the usual exponential scaling, the simultaneous binary search architecture that we propose results in a flash analog-to-digital converter with remarkable linear scaling between the number of comparators and the number of bits resolved.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2002 (1)

2001 (7)

J. Twichell, J. L. Wasserman, P. W. Juodawlkis, G. E. Betts, and R. C. Williamson, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 13, 714 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Williamson, J. L. Wasserman, G. E. Betts, and J. C. Twichell, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Sakata, Appl. Opt. 40, 240 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, C. Xu, W. H. Knox, J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, R. S. Windler, and S. G. Kosinski, Opt. Lett. 26, 358 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Urata, R. Takahashi, V. Sabnis, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 717 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Nishizawa, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 518 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Currie, T. R. Clark, and P. J. Mathews, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 12, 1689 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (5)

R. H. Walden, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 17, 539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, and B. Jalali, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1309 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Goto and N. Nishizawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 325 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Dagli, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kang and R. D. Esman, Electron. Lett. 35, 60 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

M. Y. Frankel, J. U. Kang, and R. D. Esman, Electron. Lett. 33, 2096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Hatami-Hanza, J. Hong, A. Atieh, P. Myslinski, and J. Chrostowski, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 833 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

Asano, K.

Atieh, A.

H. Hatami-Hanza, J. Hong, A. Atieh, P. Myslinski, and J. Chrostowski, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 833 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Betts, G. E.

J. Twichell, J. L. Wasserman, P. W. Juodawlkis, G. E. Betts, and R. C. Williamson, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 13, 714 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Williamson, J. L. Wasserman, G. E. Betts, and J. C. Twichell, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bhushan, A. S.

F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, and B. Jalali, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1309 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chandalia, J. K.

Chrostowski, J.

H. Hatami-Hanza, J. Hong, A. Atieh, P. Myslinski, and J. Chrostowski, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 833 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Clark, T. R.

M. Currie, T. R. Clark, and P. J. Mathews, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 12, 1689 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Coppinger, F.

F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, and B. Jalali, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1309 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Currie, M.

M. Currie, T. R. Clark, and P. J. Mathews, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 12, 1689 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dagli, N.

N. Dagli, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Esman, R. D.

J. U. Kang and R. D. Esman, Electron. Lett. 35, 60 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Frankel, J. U. Kang, and R. D. Esman, Electron. Lett. 33, 2096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Frankel, M. Y.

M. Y. Frankel, J. U. Kang, and R. D. Esman, Electron. Lett. 33, 2096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J.

Goto, T.

T. Goto and N. Nishizawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 325 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hargreaves, J. J.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. S.

R. Urata, R. Takahashi, V. Sabnis, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 717 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hatami-Hanza, H.

H. Hatami-Hanza, J. Hong, A. Atieh, P. Myslinski, and J. Chrostowski, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 833 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hong, J.

H. Hatami-Hanza, J. Hong, A. Atieh, P. Myslinski, and J. Chrostowski, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 833 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ichioka, Y.

Jalali, B.

F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, and B. Jalali, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1309 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Juodawlkis, P. W.

J. Twichell, J. L. Wasserman, P. W. Juodawlkis, G. E. Betts, and R. C. Williamson, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 13, 714 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. U.

J. U. Kang and R. D. Esman, Electron. Lett. 35, 60 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Frankel, J. U. Kang, and R. D. Esman, Electron. Lett. 33, 2096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W. H.

Konishi, T.

Kosinski, S. G.

Liu, X.

Mathews, P. J.

M. Currie, T. R. Clark, and P. J. Mathews, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 12, 1689 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

R. Urata, R. Takahashi, V. Sabnis, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 717 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mitschke, F. M.

Mollenauer, L. F.

Myslinski, P.

H. Hatami-Hanza, J. Hong, A. Atieh, P. Myslinski, and J. Chrostowski, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 833 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nishizawa, N.

N. Nishizawa, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 518 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Goto and N. Nishizawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 325 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O’Donnell, F. J.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oshita, Y.

Ray, K. G.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sabnis, V.

R. Urata, R. Takahashi, V. Sabnis, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 717 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sakata, H.

Takahashi, R.

R. Urata, R. Takahashi, V. Sabnis, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 717 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tanimura, K.

Twichell, J.

J. Twichell, J. L. Wasserman, P. W. Juodawlkis, G. E. Betts, and R. C. Williamson, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 13, 714 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Twichell, J. C.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Williamson, J. L. Wasserman, G. E. Betts, and J. C. Twichell, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Urata, R.

R. Urata, R. Takahashi, V. Sabnis, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 717 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walden, R. H.

R. H. Walden, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 17, 539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wasserman, J. L.

R. C. Williamson, J. L. Wasserman, G. E. Betts, and J. C. Twichell, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Twichell, J. L. Wasserman, P. W. Juodawlkis, G. E. Betts, and R. C. Williamson, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 13, 714 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, R. C.

J. Twichell, J. L. Wasserman, P. W. Juodawlkis, G. E. Betts, and R. C. Williamson, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 13, 714 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Williamson, J. L. Wasserman, G. E. Betts, and J. C. Twichell, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Windler, R. S.

Xu, C.

Younger, R. D.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (2)

M. Y. Frankel, J. U. Kang, and R. D. Esman, Electron. Lett. 33, 2096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kang and R. D. Esman, Electron. Lett. 35, 60 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

R. H. Walden, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 17, 539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. Nishizawa, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 518 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. (2)

M. Currie, T. R. Clark, and P. J. Mathews, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 12, 1689 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Twichell, J. L. Wasserman, P. W. Juodawlkis, G. E. Betts, and R. C. Williamson, IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 13, 714 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

H. Hatami-Hanza, J. Hong, A. Atieh, P. Myslinski, and J. Chrostowski, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 833 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Goto and N. Nishizawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 325 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Urata, R. Takahashi, V. Sabnis, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 717 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (4)

F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, and B. Jalali, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1309 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Dagli, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Williamson, J. L. Wasserman, G. E. Betts, and J. C. Twichell, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Illustration of an ultrafast, N-bit ADC with a SSFS and interleaving filters. EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Binary search with interleaving filters. Only three comparators instead of the usual eight (23) are needed for 3-bit ADC resolution.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic illustration of the spectrum breathing setup. Approximately 1 km of DDF (DIF) and 0.5 km of HNLF are necessary.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Numerical simulation of the spectral evolution of an input pulse propagating through the fiber setup in Fig. 3 (DDF–HNLF–DIF). The input pulse width is 2 ps.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Numerical simulation of SSFS as a function of input pulse power (Pin). P0 is the fundamental soliton power needed at launch.

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