Abstract

Athermal silica-based interferometer-type planar light-wave circuits were realized by a newly developed multicore fabrication method. In this method, inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition and polishing technologies are adopted on a silica substrate with a trench-type waveguide pattern prepared by reactive ion etching. Two kinds of deposited core material, 10GeO290SiO2 (mol. %) and 8GeO25B2O387SiO2 (mol. %), which show wavelength temperature dependence of 9.7 and 8.1 pm/°C, respectively, were used to prepare the waveguide sections in a device. By adjustment of the lengths of waveguide sections with these two different core materials, athermal characteristics of less than 0.5 pm/°C were achieved for Mach–Zehnder interferometer filter devices at the 1.55µm wavelength range while the temperature varied from -20 to 80 °C. The new method is also applicable for the preparation of many other kinds of functional devices.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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2003

Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, K. F. Ho, Q. N. Ngo, L. P. Zuo, and S. Takahashi, Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 183 (2003).

2002

1998

Y. Kokubun, S. Yoneda, and S. Matsuura, Electron. Lett. 34, 36 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Tanobe, Y. Kondo, Y. Kadota, K. Okamoto, and Y. Yoshikuni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arishima, K.

Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, H. Takahashi, F. Hanawa, K. Hattori, K. Yokoyama, S. Suzuki, S. Sumida, K. Okamoto, M. Ishii, H. Yamada, T. Yoshida, K. Arishima, F. Ebisawa, and M. Nakahara, “Optical waveguide circuit, its manufacturing method and optical waveguide module having the optical waveguide circuit,” U.S. patent6,304,687 (October16, 2001).

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J. T. Kenny, J. Midgley, V. N. Morozov, N. Valentine, K. Purchase, M. Stiller, A. Ticknor, J. Burke, and J. Love, “Photonic devices comprising thermo-optic polymer,” U.S. patent6,311,004 (October30, 2001).

Ebisawa, F.

Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, H. Takahashi, F. Hanawa, K. Hattori, K. Yokoyama, S. Suzuki, S. Sumida, K. Okamoto, M. Ishii, H. Yamada, T. Yoshida, K. Arishima, F. Ebisawa, and M. Nakahara, “Optical waveguide circuit, its manufacturing method and optical waveguide module having the optical waveguide circuit,” U.S. patent6,304,687 (October16, 2001).

Hanawa, F.

Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, H. Takahashi, F. Hanawa, K. Hattori, K. Yokoyama, S. Suzuki, S. Sumida, K. Okamoto, M. Ishii, H. Yamada, T. Yoshida, K. Arishima, F. Ebisawa, and M. Nakahara, “Optical waveguide circuit, its manufacturing method and optical waveguide module having the optical waveguide circuit,” U.S. patent6,304,687 (October16, 2001).

Hattori, K.

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Ho, K. F.

Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, K. F. Ho, Q. N. Ngo, L. P. Zuo, and S. Takahashi, Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 183 (2003).

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Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, H. Takahashi, F. Hanawa, K. Hattori, K. Yokoyama, S. Suzuki, S. Sumida, K. Okamoto, M. Ishii, H. Yamada, T. Yoshida, K. Arishima, F. Ebisawa, and M. Nakahara, “Optical waveguide circuit, its manufacturing method and optical waveguide module having the optical waveguide circuit,” U.S. patent6,304,687 (October16, 2001).

Ishii, M.

Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, H. Takahashi, F. Hanawa, K. Hattori, K. Yokoyama, S. Suzuki, S. Sumida, K. Okamoto, M. Ishii, H. Yamada, T. Yoshida, K. Arishima, F. Ebisawa, and M. Nakahara, “Optical waveguide circuit, its manufacturing method and optical waveguide module having the optical waveguide circuit,” U.S. patent6,304,687 (October16, 2001).

Kadota, Y.

H. Tanobe, Y. Kondo, Y. Kadota, K. Okamoto, and Y. Yoshikuni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, A.

Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, H. Takahashi, F. Hanawa, K. Hattori, K. Yokoyama, S. Suzuki, S. Sumida, K. Okamoto, M. Ishii, H. Yamada, T. Yoshida, K. Arishima, F. Ebisawa, and M. Nakahara, “Optical waveguide circuit, its manufacturing method and optical waveguide module having the optical waveguide circuit,” U.S. patent6,304,687 (October16, 2001).

Kawamoto, Y.

Kazansky, P. G.

Kenny, J. T.

J. T. Kenny, J. Midgley, V. N. Morozov, N. Valentine, K. Purchase, M. Stiller, A. Ticknor, J. Burke, and J. Love, “Photonic devices comprising thermo-optic polymer,” U.S. patent6,311,004 (October30, 2001).

Kintaka, K.

Kokubun, Y.

Y. Kokubun, S. Yoneda, and S. Matsuura, Electron. Lett. 34, 36 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, Y.

H. Tanobe, Y. Kondo, Y. Kadota, K. Okamoto, and Y. Yoshikuni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Love, J.

J. T. Kenny, J. Midgley, V. N. Morozov, N. Valentine, K. Purchase, M. Stiller, A. Ticknor, J. Burke, and J. Love, “Photonic devices comprising thermo-optic polymer,” U.S. patent6,311,004 (October30, 2001).

Matsuura, S.

Y. Kokubun, S. Yoneda, and S. Matsuura, Electron. Lett. 34, 36 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Midgley, J.

J. T. Kenny, J. Midgley, V. N. Morozov, N. Valentine, K. Purchase, M. Stiller, A. Ticknor, J. Burke, and J. Love, “Photonic devices comprising thermo-optic polymer,” U.S. patent6,311,004 (October30, 2001).

Morozov, V. N.

J. T. Kenny, J. Midgley, V. N. Morozov, N. Valentine, K. Purchase, M. Stiller, A. Ticknor, J. Burke, and J. Love, “Photonic devices comprising thermo-optic polymer,” U.S. patent6,311,004 (October30, 2001).

Nakahara, M.

Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, H. Takahashi, F. Hanawa, K. Hattori, K. Yokoyama, S. Suzuki, S. Sumida, K. Okamoto, M. Ishii, H. Yamada, T. Yoshida, K. Arishima, F. Ebisawa, and M. Nakahara, “Optical waveguide circuit, its manufacturing method and optical waveguide module having the optical waveguide circuit,” U.S. patent6,304,687 (October16, 2001).

Ngo, Q. N.

Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, K. F. Ho, Q. N. Ngo, L. P. Zuo, and S. Takahashi, Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 183 (2003).

Nishii, J.

Okamoto, K.

H. Tanobe, Y. Kondo, Y. Kadota, K. Okamoto, and Y. Yoshikuni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, H. Takahashi, F. Hanawa, K. Hattori, K. Yokoyama, S. Suzuki, S. Sumida, K. Okamoto, M. Ishii, H. Yamada, T. Yoshida, K. Arishima, F. Ebisawa, and M. Nakahara, “Optical waveguide circuit, its manufacturing method and optical waveguide module having the optical waveguide circuit,” U.S. patent6,304,687 (October16, 2001).

Pita, K.

Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, K. F. Ho, Q. N. Ngo, L. P. Zuo, and S. Takahashi, Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 183 (2003).

Purchase, K.

J. T. Kenny, J. Midgley, V. N. Morozov, N. Valentine, K. Purchase, M. Stiller, A. Ticknor, J. Burke, and J. Love, “Photonic devices comprising thermo-optic polymer,” U.S. patent6,311,004 (October30, 2001).

Sakamoto, A.

Stiller, M.

J. T. Kenny, J. Midgley, V. N. Morozov, N. Valentine, K. Purchase, M. Stiller, A. Ticknor, J. Burke, and J. Love, “Photonic devices comprising thermo-optic polymer,” U.S. patent6,311,004 (October30, 2001).

Sumida, S.

Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, H. Takahashi, F. Hanawa, K. Hattori, K. Yokoyama, S. Suzuki, S. Sumida, K. Okamoto, M. Ishii, H. Yamada, T. Yoshida, K. Arishima, F. Ebisawa, and M. Nakahara, “Optical waveguide circuit, its manufacturing method and optical waveguide module having the optical waveguide circuit,” U.S. patent6,304,687 (October16, 2001).

Suzuki, S.

Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, H. Takahashi, F. Hanawa, K. Hattori, K. Yokoyama, S. Suzuki, S. Sumida, K. Okamoto, M. Ishii, H. Yamada, T. Yoshida, K. Arishima, F. Ebisawa, and M. Nakahara, “Optical waveguide circuit, its manufacturing method and optical waveguide module having the optical waveguide circuit,” U.S. patent6,304,687 (October16, 2001).

Takahashi, H.

Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, H. Takahashi, F. Hanawa, K. Hattori, K. Yokoyama, S. Suzuki, S. Sumida, K. Okamoto, M. Ishii, H. Yamada, T. Yoshida, K. Arishima, F. Ebisawa, and M. Nakahara, “Optical waveguide circuit, its manufacturing method and optical waveguide module having the optical waveguide circuit,” U.S. patent6,304,687 (October16, 2001).

Takahashi, S.

Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, K. F. Ho, Q. N. Ngo, L. P. Zuo, and S. Takahashi, Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 183 (2003).

Tanobe, H.

H. Tanobe, Y. Kondo, Y. Kadota, K. Okamoto, and Y. Yoshikuni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ticknor, A.

J. T. Kenny, J. Midgley, V. N. Morozov, N. Valentine, K. Purchase, M. Stiller, A. Ticknor, J. Burke, and J. Love, “Photonic devices comprising thermo-optic polymer,” U.S. patent6,311,004 (October30, 2001).

Valentine, N.

J. T. Kenny, J. Midgley, V. N. Morozov, N. Valentine, K. Purchase, M. Stiller, A. Ticknor, J. Burke, and J. Love, “Photonic devices comprising thermo-optic polymer,” U.S. patent6,311,004 (October30, 2001).

Yamada, H.

Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, H. Takahashi, F. Hanawa, K. Hattori, K. Yokoyama, S. Suzuki, S. Sumida, K. Okamoto, M. Ishii, H. Yamada, T. Yoshida, K. Arishima, F. Ebisawa, and M. Nakahara, “Optical waveguide circuit, its manufacturing method and optical waveguide module having the optical waveguide circuit,” U.S. patent6,304,687 (October16, 2001).

Yokoyama, K.

Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, H. Takahashi, F. Hanawa, K. Hattori, K. Yokoyama, S. Suzuki, S. Sumida, K. Okamoto, M. Ishii, H. Yamada, T. Yoshida, K. Arishima, F. Ebisawa, and M. Nakahara, “Optical waveguide circuit, its manufacturing method and optical waveguide module having the optical waveguide circuit,” U.S. patent6,304,687 (October16, 2001).

Yoneda, S.

Y. Kokubun, S. Yoneda, and S. Matsuura, Electron. Lett. 34, 36 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, T.

Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, H. Takahashi, F. Hanawa, K. Hattori, K. Yokoyama, S. Suzuki, S. Sumida, K. Okamoto, M. Ishii, H. Yamada, T. Yoshida, K. Arishima, F. Ebisawa, and M. Nakahara, “Optical waveguide circuit, its manufacturing method and optical waveguide module having the optical waveguide circuit,” U.S. patent6,304,687 (October16, 2001).

Yoshikuni, Y.

H. Tanobe, Y. Kondo, Y. Kadota, K. Okamoto, and Y. Yoshikuni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q. Y.

Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, K. F. Ho, Q. N. Ngo, L. P. Zuo, and S. Takahashi, Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 183 (2003).

Zuo, L. P.

Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, K. F. Ho, Q. N. Ngo, L. P. Zuo, and S. Takahashi, Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 183 (2003).

Chem. Phys. Lett.

Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, K. F. Ho, Q. N. Ngo, L. P. Zuo, and S. Takahashi, Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 183 (2003).

Electron. Lett.

Y. Kokubun, S. Yoneda, and S. Matsuura, Electron. Lett. 34, 36 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

H. Tanobe, Y. Kondo, Y. Kadota, K. Okamoto, and Y. Yoshikuni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, H. Takahashi, F. Hanawa, K. Hattori, K. Yokoyama, S. Suzuki, S. Sumida, K. Okamoto, M. Ishii, H. Yamada, T. Yoshida, K. Arishima, F. Ebisawa, and M. Nakahara, “Optical waveguide circuit, its manufacturing method and optical waveguide module having the optical waveguide circuit,” U.S. patent6,304,687 (October16, 2001).

J. T. Kenny, J. Midgley, V. N. Morozov, N. Valentine, K. Purchase, M. Stiller, A. Ticknor, J. Burke, and J. Love, “Photonic devices comprising thermo-optic polymer,” U.S. patent6,311,004 (October30, 2001).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Steps in the formation of a waveguide with (a) one core material and (b) two core materials.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Top view of the designed MZ-I filter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Characteristics and dλ/dT of MZ-I filters with one core material: (a) dλ/dT=9.7 pm/°C for core component 10GeO290SiO2, (b) dλ/dT=8.1 pm/°C for core component 8GeO25B2O387SiO2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Characteristics and dλ/dT of MZ-I filters with two core materials: (a) dλ/dT=0.54 pm/°C when L2=15 mm, (b) dλ/dT=-2.85 pm/°C when L2=17 mm is used.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Temperature Dependence of MZ-Is Consisting of Core 1 Materials with Temperature from -20° to 80 °C

Tables Icon

Table 2 Estimated and Experimental Values of Temperature Dependence of MZ-Is Consisting of Core 2 Materials (8GeO25B2O387SiO2 and 10GeO290SiO2) for Different Geometric Lengths L2 with Temperature from -20 to 80 °C

Equations (1)

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dn1/dTΔL=dn2/dT-dn1/dTL2.

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