Abstract

A femtosecond laser beam focused inside fused silica and other glasses can modify the refractive index of the glass. Chemical etching and atomic-force microscope studies show that the modified region can have a sharp-tipped cone-shaped structure with a tip diameter as small as 100 nm. Placing the structure near the bottom surface of a silica glass sample and applying a selective chemical etch to the bottom surface produces clean, circular, submicrometer-diameter holes. Holes spaced as close to one another as 1.4 µm are demonstrated.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2003 (3)

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, Appl. Phys. A 76, 309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Express 11, 775 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Taylor and C. Hnatovsky, Proc. SPIE 4833, 811 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, Z. Zhang, Q. Sun, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, Opt. Express 10, 1244 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Li, M. Ishizuka, X. Liu, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, and K. Asakawa, Opt. Commun. 212, 159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, J. Aus der Au, E. Mazur, and J. A. Squier, Proc. SPIE 4633, 112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 191, 333 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawamura, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, N. Ito, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Marcinkevicius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, Opt. Lett. 26, 277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H.-B. Sun, Y. Xu, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, Opt. Rev. 6, 396 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Asakawa, K.

M. Li, M. Ishizuka, X. Liu, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, and K. Asakawa, Opt. Commun. 212, 159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aus der Au, J.

C. B. Schaffer, J. Aus der Au, E. Mazur, and J. A. Squier, Proc. SPIE 4633, 112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

Campillo, A. J.

Corkum, P. B.

Franco, M.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 191, 333 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Glatzel, U.

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, Appl. Phys. A 76, 309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q.

Gorelik, T.

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, Appl. Phys. A 76, 309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, M.

K. Kawamura, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, N. Ito, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hnatovsky, C.

Hosono, H.

K. Kawamura, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, N. Ito, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, N.

M. Li, M. Ishizuka, X. Liu, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, and K. Asakawa, Opt. Commun. 212, 159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ishizuka, M.

M. Li, M. Ishizuka, X. Liu, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, and K. Asakawa, Opt. Commun. 212, 159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ito, N.

K. Kawamura, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, N. Ito, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

Juodkazis, S.

Kawamura, K.

K. Kawamura, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, N. Ito, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

M. Li, M. Ishizuka, X. Liu, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, and K. Asakawa, Opt. Commun. 212, 159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.-B.

Liu, X.

M. Li, M. Ishizuka, X. Liu, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, and K. Asakawa, Opt. Commun. 212, 159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marcinkevicius, A.

Matsuo, S.

Mazur, E.

C. B. Schaffer, J. Aus der Au, E. Mazur, and J. A. Squier, Proc. SPIE 4633, 112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mehandale, M.

Misawa, H.

Miwa, M.

Mysyrowicz, A.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 191, 333 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

Nolte, S.

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, Appl. Phys. A 76, 309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 191, 333 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

Rosenberg, A.

Sarukura, N.

K. Kawamura, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, N. Ito, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C. B.

C. B. Schaffer, J. Aus der Au, E. Mazur, and J. A. Squier, Proc. SPIE 4633, 112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Simova, E.

Squier, J. A.

C. B. Schaffer, J. Aus der Au, E. Mazur, and J. A. Squier, Proc. SPIE 4633, 112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sudrie, L.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 191, 333 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, Y.

M. Li, M. Ishizuka, X. Liu, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, and K. Asakawa, Opt. Commun. 212, 159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.-B.

H.-B. Sun, Y. Xu, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, Opt. Rev. 6, 396 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Q.

Taylor, R. S.

Tonucci, R. J.

Tuennermann, A.

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, Appl. Phys. A 76, 309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

Will, M.

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, Appl. Phys. A 76, 309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

Xu, Y.

H.-B. Sun, Y. Xu, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, Opt. Rev. 6, 396 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

Zhang, Z.

Appl. Phys. A (1)

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, Appl. Phys. A 76, 309 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Kawamura, N. Sarukura, M. Hirano, N. Ito, and H. Hosono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

M. Li, M. Ishizuka, X. Liu, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, and K. Asakawa, Opt. Commun. 212, 159 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 191, 333 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Rev. (1)

H.-B. Sun, Y. Xu, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, Opt. Rev. 6, 396 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

C. B. Schaffer, J. Aus der Au, E. Mazur, and J. A. Squier, Proc. SPIE 4633, 112 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor and C. Hnatovsky, Proc. SPIE 4833, 811 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

AFM image of the cross section of an etched tapered conical structure in a silica glass sample. Focused light enters from the top. The etch depth is 40 nm over the entire conical structure. We produced the structure by focusing N.A.=0.65 a 30-mW, 100-kHz laser beam 150 µm below the top surface and translating the sample perpendicular to the laser beam at a scan rate of 25 µm/s. The sample was then cut into two pieces transverse to the scan direction. One of the inside surfaces was polished, etched (in 1% HF for 3 min), and placed under the AFM.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM image of a single, circular, clean, sub-micrometer-diameter hole in silica glass. The laser power at 100 kHz was 75 mW, and 4000 shots were used. The etch time starting from the first emergence of a hole was 30 min in a 20% HF solution. Scale, 50 nm per small division; hole diameter, 750 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM image of two closely spaced 1.4µm holes in silica. The laser power at 100 kHz was 75 mW, and 4000 shots were used to make each hole. The etch time starting from the first emergence of a hole was 30 min in a 20% HF solution. Scale, 200 nm per small division; hole depth, 750 nm. The laser-induced modified structures associated with these holes were made closer to the bottom surface than the structure that resulted in the hole shown in Fig. 2. The holes here are therefore wider than the hole in Fig. 2 for the same amount of etching.

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