Abstract

Noises associated with materials and devices in the readout circuits for a Si p–i–n photodiode have been measured. The dielectric polarization noise of the materials and devices near the gate circuit of the junction field-effect transistor used for the preamplifier determined the photodetection limits of photodiodes with a diameter smaller than several millimeters. We fabricated an ultralow-noise photodetection system, minimizing the polarization noise as much as possible. The readout noises of the system were 10 and 18 electrons in a correlated double sample for 0.1- and 1-mm-diameter Si p–i–n photodiodes at 77 K, respectively.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Hallensleben, S. W. Harmer, and P. D. Townsend, J. Phys. D 32, 623 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. J. Fox, N. Woodard, and G. P. Lafyatis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1951 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Bondurant, P. Kumar, J. H. Shapiro, and M. M. Salour, Opt. Lett. 7, 529 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 902 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Takeuchi, J. Kim, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1063 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Kandiah, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 41, 2006 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Akiba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3236 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Akiba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L 558 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Akiba, Proc. SPIE 4130, 850 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Bouchiat and M. Ocio, Comments Condens. Matter Phys. 14, 163 (1988).
  11. N. E. Israeloff, Phys. Rev. B 53, R11 913 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. K. Jonscher, Nature 267, 673 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. K. Lee, J. F. Liu, and A. S. Nowick, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1559 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. S. Lim, A. V. Vaysleyb, and A. S. Nowick, Appl. Phys. A 56, 8 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2000

M. Akiba, Proc. SPIE 4130, 850 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 902 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Takeuchi, J. Kim, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1063 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Akiba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L 558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Hallensleben, S. W. Harmer, and P. D. Townsend, J. Phys. D 32, 623 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Fox, N. Woodard, and G. P. Lafyatis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1951 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. Akiba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

N. E. Israeloff, Phys. Rev. B 53, R11 913 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

K. Kandiah, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 41, 2006 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

B. S. Lim, A. V. Vaysleyb, and A. S. Nowick, Appl. Phys. A 56, 8 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

W. K. Lee, J. F. Liu, and A. S. Nowick, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1559 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

H. Bouchiat and M. Ocio, Comments Condens. Matter Phys. 14, 163 (1988).

1982

1977

A. K. Jonscher, Nature 267, 673 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Akiba, M.

M. Akiba, Proc. SPIE 4130, 850 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Akiba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L 558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Akiba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bondurant, S.

Bouchiat, H.

H. Bouchiat and M. Ocio, Comments Condens. Matter Phys. 14, 163 (1988).

Fox, J. J.

J. J. Fox, N. Woodard, and G. P. Lafyatis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1951 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hallensleben, S.

S. Hallensleben, S. W. Harmer, and P. D. Townsend, J. Phys. D 32, 623 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Harmer, S. W.

S. Hallensleben, S. W. Harmer, and P. D. Townsend, J. Phys. D 32, 623 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hogue, H. H.

J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 902 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Takeuchi, J. Kim, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1063 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Israeloff, N. E.

N. E. Israeloff, Phys. Rev. B 53, R11 913 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jonscher, A. K.

A. K. Jonscher, Nature 267, 673 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kandiah, K.

K. Kandiah, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 41, 2006 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

S. Takeuchi, J. Kim, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1063 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 902 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, P.

Lafyatis, G. P.

J. J. Fox, N. Woodard, and G. P. Lafyatis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1951 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. K.

W. K. Lee, J. F. Liu, and A. S. Nowick, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1559 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, B. S.

B. S. Lim, A. V. Vaysleyb, and A. S. Nowick, Appl. Phys. A 56, 8 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. F.

W. K. Lee, J. F. Liu, and A. S. Nowick, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1559 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nowick, A. S.

B. S. Lim, A. V. Vaysleyb, and A. S. Nowick, Appl. Phys. A 56, 8 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Lee, J. F. Liu, and A. S. Nowick, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1559 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ocio, M.

H. Bouchiat and M. Ocio, Comments Condens. Matter Phys. 14, 163 (1988).

Salour, M. M.

Shapiro, J. H.

Takeuchi, S.

J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 902 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Takeuchi, J. Kim, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1063 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P. D.

S. Hallensleben, S. W. Harmer, and P. D. Townsend, J. Phys. D 32, 623 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vaysleyb, A. V.

B. S. Lim, A. V. Vaysleyb, and A. S. Nowick, Appl. Phys. A 56, 8 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Woodard, N.

J. J. Fox, N. Woodard, and G. P. Lafyatis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1951 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 902 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Takeuchi, J. Kim, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1063 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A

B. S. Lim, A. V. Vaysleyb, and A. S. Nowick, Appl. Phys. A 56, 8 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 902 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Takeuchi, J. Kim, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1063 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Akiba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Comments Condens. Matter Phys.

H. Bouchiat and M. Ocio, Comments Condens. Matter Phys. 14, 163 (1988).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices

K. Kandiah, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 41, 2006 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D

S. Hallensleben, S. W. Harmer, and P. D. Townsend, J. Phys. D 32, 623 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

M. Akiba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L 558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nature

A. K. Jonscher, Nature 267, 673 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

N. E. Israeloff, Phys. Rev. B 53, R11 913 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

W. K. Lee, J. F. Liu, and A. S. Nowick, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1559 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

M. Akiba, Proc. SPIE 4130, 850 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

J. J. Fox, N. Woodard, and G. P. Lafyatis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1951 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Readout circuit. The circuit within the dashed box was placed on a cold surface in a liquid-nitrogen Dewar.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral densities of the readout-noise voltages of readout circuits with a 0.1-mm or 1-mm Si p–i–n photodiode and without the photodiode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of the readout noise on the area of the photodiode. The dependence was calculated for a correlated double sample with a readout interval of 1 s and a 10-Hz cutoff frequency and with the parameters measured in this study. Filled circles, readout noise measured for 0.1- and 1-mm-diameter photodiodes. Cases 1–3 are defined in the text.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Id2=4kT2πfC,
Vd2=4kTC/2πfC2, C=C-iC,
Id2=aCf,
Itotal2=fiaiCi+2πfVnCin2+2eIleak,
Itotal2=fI02+fapCp+2eIpA+2πfVn2C0+CpA2,

Metrics