Abstract

We report type I second-harmonic generation by use of first-order quasi-phase matching in a GaAs/AlAs symmetric superlattice structure with femtosecond fundamental pulses at 1.55 µm. Periodic spatial modulation of the bulklike second-order susceptibility χzxy2 was achieved with quantum-well intermixing for which the group III vacancies were created by As+-ion implantation. A narrow second-harmonic bandwidth of 0.9 nm (FWHM) with an average power of 1.5 µW was detected, corresponding to an internal conversion efficiency of 0.06%, which was considerably limited by the spectral bandwidth of the fundamental.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Moutzouris, S. Venugopal Rao, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, V. Berger, M. Calligaro, and V. Ortiz, Opt. Lett. 26, 1785 (2001), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Zeaiter, T. C. Kleckner, J. S. Aitchison, and D. C. Hutchings, in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 80 of OSA TOPS (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper MD37.
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    [CrossRef]
  10. J.-P. Bouchard, M. Tetu, S. Janz, D. X. Xu, Z. R. Wasilewski, P. Piva, U. G. Akano, and I. V. Mitchell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4247 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. T. C. Kleckner, “Quasi-phase-matched nonlinear frequency conversion in periodically disordered GaAs/AlAs superlattice-core waveguides,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, 2002).
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    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Modotto, University of Glasgow (personal communication, 2001).

2002 (1)

2001 (3)

2000 (3)

A. Saher-Helmy, D. C. Hutchings, T. C. Kleckner, J. H. Marsh, A. C. Bryce, J. M. Arnold, C. R. Stanley, J. S. Aitchison, C. T. A. Brown, K. Moutzouris, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, Opt. Lett. 25, 1370 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hutchings, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1362 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Bouchard, M. Tetu, S. Janz, D. X. Xu, Z. R. Wasilewski, P. Piva, U. G. Akano, and I. V. Mitchell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4247 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

For example, E. H. Li, E. S. Koteles, and J. H. Marsh, eds., special issue on interdiffused quantum-well materials and devices, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(4) (1998).

1996 (1)

S. J. B. Yoo, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 955 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. J. B. Yoo, R. Bhat, C. Caneau, and M. A. Koza, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

H. Leier, A. Forchel, G. Horcher, J. Hommel, S. Bayer, H. Rothfritz, G. Weimann, and W. Schlapp, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1805 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

Akano, U. G.

J.-P. Bouchard, M. Tetu, S. Janz, D. X. Xu, Z. R. Wasilewski, P. Piva, U. G. Akano, and I. V. Mitchell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4247 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, J. M.

Bayer, S.

H. Leier, A. Forchel, G. Horcher, J. Hommel, S. Bayer, H. Rothfritz, G. Weimann, and W. Schlapp, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1805 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Becouarn, L.

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Berger, V.

Bhat, R.

S. J. B. Yoo, R. Bhat, C. Caneau, and M. A. Koza, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bouchard, J.-P.

J.-P. Bouchard, M. Tetu, S. Janz, D. X. Xu, Z. R. Wasilewski, P. Piva, U. G. Akano, and I. V. Mitchell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4247 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. T. A.

Bryce, A. C.

Calligaro, M.

Caneau, C.

S. J. B. Yoo, R. Bhat, C. Caneau, and M. A. Koza, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

De Angelis, C.

De Rossi, A.

Ebert, C. B.

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ebrahimzadeh, M.

Eyres, L. A.

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Forchel, A.

H. Leier, A. Forchel, G. Horcher, J. Hommel, S. Bayer, H. Rothfritz, G. Weimann, and W. Schlapp, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1805 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gerard, B.

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gringoli, F.

Harris, J. S.

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hommel, J.

H. Leier, A. Forchel, G. Horcher, J. Hommel, S. Bayer, H. Rothfritz, G. Weimann, and W. Schlapp, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1805 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Horcher, G.

H. Leier, A. Forchel, G. Horcher, J. Hommel, S. Bayer, H. Rothfritz, G. Weimann, and W. Schlapp, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1805 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hutchings, D. C.

D. C. Hutchings and T. C. Kleckner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 890 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hutchings, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1362 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Saher-Helmy, D. C. Hutchings, T. C. Kleckner, J. H. Marsh, A. C. Bryce, J. M. Arnold, C. R. Stanley, J. S. Aitchison, C. T. A. Brown, K. Moutzouris, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, Opt. Lett. 25, 1370 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Zeaiter, T. C. Kleckner, J. S. Aitchison, and D. C. Hutchings, in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 80 of OSA TOPS (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper MD37.

Janz, S.

J.-P. Bouchard, M. Tetu, S. Janz, D. X. Xu, Z. R. Wasilewski, P. Piva, U. G. Akano, and I. V. Mitchell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4247 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kleckner, T. C.

D. C. Hutchings and T. C. Kleckner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 890 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Saher-Helmy, D. C. Hutchings, T. C. Kleckner, J. H. Marsh, A. C. Bryce, J. M. Arnold, C. R. Stanley, J. S. Aitchison, C. T. A. Brown, K. Moutzouris, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, Opt. Lett. 25, 1370 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Zeaiter, T. C. Kleckner, J. S. Aitchison, and D. C. Hutchings, in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 80 of OSA TOPS (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper MD37.

T. C. Kleckner, “Quasi-phase-matched nonlinear frequency conversion in periodically disordered GaAs/AlAs superlattice-core waveguides,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, 2002).

Koza, M. A.

S. J. B. Yoo, R. Bhat, C. Caneau, and M. A. Koza, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lallier, E.

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leier, H.

H. Leier, A. Forchel, G. Horcher, J. Hommel, S. Bayer, H. Rothfritz, G. Weimann, and W. Schlapp, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1805 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marsh, J. H.

Midrio, M.

Mitchell, I. V.

J.-P. Bouchard, M. Tetu, S. Janz, D. X. Xu, Z. R. Wasilewski, P. Piva, U. G. Akano, and I. V. Mitchell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4247 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Modotto, D.

Moutzouris, K.

Nalesso, G. F.

Ortiz, V.

Pinguet, T. J.

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Piva, P.

J.-P. Bouchard, M. Tetu, S. Janz, D. X. Xu, Z. R. Wasilewski, P. Piva, U. G. Akano, and I. V. Mitchell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4247 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rothfritz, H.

H. Leier, A. Forchel, G. Horcher, J. Hommel, S. Bayer, H. Rothfritz, G. Weimann, and W. Schlapp, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1805 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Saher-Helmy, A.

Schlapp, W.

H. Leier, A. Forchel, G. Horcher, J. Hommel, S. Bayer, H. Rothfritz, G. Weimann, and W. Schlapp, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1805 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, C. R.

Tetu, M.

J.-P. Bouchard, M. Tetu, S. Janz, D. X. Xu, Z. R. Wasilewski, P. Piva, U. G. Akano, and I. V. Mitchell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4247 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tourreau, P. J.

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Venugopal Rao, S.

Wasilewski, Z. R.

J.-P. Bouchard, M. Tetu, S. Janz, D. X. Xu, Z. R. Wasilewski, P. Piva, U. G. Akano, and I. V. Mitchell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4247 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weimann, G.

H. Leier, A. Forchel, G. Horcher, J. Hommel, S. Bayer, H. Rothfritz, G. Weimann, and W. Schlapp, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1805 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D. X.

J.-P. Bouchard, M. Tetu, S. Janz, D. X. Xu, Z. R. Wasilewski, P. Piva, U. G. Akano, and I. V. Mitchell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4247 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S. J. B.

S. J. B. Yoo, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 955 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. J. B. Yoo, R. Bhat, C. Caneau, and M. A. Koza, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zeaiter, K.

K. Zeaiter, T. C. Kleckner, J. S. Aitchison, and D. C. Hutchings, in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 80 of OSA TOPS (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper MD37.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

S. J. B. Yoo, R. Bhat, C. Caneau, and M. A. Koza, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, and E. Lallier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Bouchard, M. Tetu, S. Janz, D. X. Xu, Z. R. Wasilewski, P. Piva, U. G. Akano, and I. V. Mitchell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4247 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hutchings, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1362 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

For example, E. H. Li, E. S. Koteles, and J. H. Marsh, eds., special issue on interdiffused quantum-well materials and devices, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(4) (1998).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Leier, A. Forchel, G. Horcher, J. Hommel, S. Bayer, H. Rothfritz, G. Weimann, and W. Schlapp, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1805 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

S. J. B. Yoo, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 955 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (3)

K. Zeaiter, T. C. Kleckner, J. S. Aitchison, and D. C. Hutchings, in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 80 of OSA TOPS (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper MD37.

T. C. Kleckner, “Quasi-phase-matched nonlinear frequency conversion in periodically disordered GaAs/AlAs superlattice-core waveguides,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, 2002).

D. Modotto, University of Glasgow (personal communication, 2001).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photoluminescence (at 77 K) blueshift as a function of As+-ion flux at 4-MeV energy. Samples were annealed at 850 °C for 30 s.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Observed SH (bottom) and fundamental (top) spectra. Insets, corresponding spectra on an expanded vertical scale at a detuning of 10 nm; both phase-matched and non-phase-matched components are evident.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured wavelength-tuning curve for SHG by a femtosecond optical source. (b) SH output average power as a function of the fundamental input average power on a log–log scale. The best fit to the slope is 2.04, confirming the expected quadratic power dependence.

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